Complications of Transanal Endoscopic Microsugery (TEMS). A Prospective Audit
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the postoperative complications of Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEMS) excision of rectal lesions.
A prospective audit of 262 consecutive TEMS procedures performed by a single surgeon between 1999 and 2008.
The mean age of patients was 72 years. The mean area of the lesions excised was 17.5 cm(2) with a mean diameter of 4.5 cm at a mean distance of 7.4 cm from the dentate line. There were 201 full thickness excisions, 51 partial thickness excisions and nine were mixed or unclassified. Thirty-three (13%) patients developed 41 complications. There were two (0.8%) deaths within 30 days. Pelvic sepsis occurred in seven (3%) patients and was significantly more common after excision of low lesions within 2 cm of the dentate line. Postoperative haemorrhage occurred in seven (3%) patients and was significantly less common when dissection was performed with ultrasonic dissection than with diathermy. Fourteen (5%) patients developed acute urinary retention. Four (1.5%) patients developed rectal stenosis and four (1.5%) suffered uncomplicated surgical emphysema that required no treatment.
Transanal endoscopic microsurgery is a safe operation with a low mortality and morbidity. Pelvic sepsis is more common after excision of lesions within 2 cm of the dentate line. Ultrasonic dissection is associated with less postoperative haemorrhage than diathermy.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Low rectal cancer is conventionally managed with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by radical surgery (RS). In patients who refuse a stoma or are unfit for RS, an alternative approach may be the use of pre-op CRT and local excision (LE) where tumours are responsive. The aim of this systematic review is to determine whether differences exist in local recurrence (LR), overall survival (OS) and disease-free (DFS) survival between patients treated with CRT + LE and CRT + RS. METHODS: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed/Ovid databases and Google Scholar between 1946 and 2013. Studies comparing outcome following LE and RS post-CRT were included. A pooled analysis was carried out using the Mantel-Haenszel statistical (random effects) model to identify differences in LR, OS and DFS between CRT + LE and CRT + RS. RESULTS: Eight studies were suitable for pooled analyses of LR whereas five and four studies were analysed for OS and DFS, respectively. When RS was used as the reference group, LR rate was higher in the LE group. However, this was non-significant (odds ratio (OR) 1.29, confidence interval (CI) 0.72-2.31, p = 0.40). Similarly, no difference was observed in 10-year OS (OR 0.96, CI 0.38-2.43, p = 0.93) or 5-year DFS (OR 1.04, CI 0.61-1.76, p = 0.89). There was evidence of publication bias in studies used for DFS. Subgroup analysis of above outcomes in T3/any N stage cancers showed no difference in LE versus RS. CONCLUSION: In the current evidence synthesis, there was no statistical difference in the LR, OS and DFS rates observed between patients treated with LE and RS for rectal cancer post-CRT. LE post-CRT may represent a viable alternative to RS for some patients wishing to avoid RS. However, further randomised studies are required to confirm these results.International Journal of Colorectal Disease 11/2014; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We describe an impressive and rare case of surgical emphysema after minimally invasive rectal surgery. This case reports on a patient who developed massive retroperitoneal, intraperitoneal and subcutaneous emphysema directly following a transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) procedure for a rectal intramucosal carcinoma. Free intra-abdominal air after gastro-intestinal surgery can be a sign of a bowel perforation or anastomotic leakage. This is a serious complication often requiring immediate surgery. In our patient an abdominal computed tomography-scan with rectal contrast showed no signs of a rectal perforation. Therefore this emphysema was caused by the insufflation of CO2 gas in the rectum during the TEM-procedure. Conservative treatment resulted in an uneventful recovery. With the increasing usage of TEM for rectal lesions we expect this complication to occur more often. After ruling out a full thickness rectal wall perforation in patients with surgical emphysema following TEM, conservative treatment is the treatment of choice.
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ABSTRACT: Background ELRR by TEM is a valid alternative to TME in selected patients with early low rectal cancer, with similar long-term oncological results and better Quality of Life. The authors’ policy is to close the residual defect, with possibly a higher risk of dehiscence from tension on the suture line. Aim is to evaluate if a modified technique may reduce the risk of dehiscence. Methods The latest series of 50 patients undergoing ELRR was analyzed and patients were divided in two consecutive groups. In Group A, 25 patients underwent ELRR by TEM with the authors’ standard technique. In Group B, a subsequent series of 25 patients also underwent ELRR, but the perirectal residual cavity was filled with a hemostatic agent prior to rectal wall closure. After suture completion, the rectal ampulla was stuffed with gauzes to avoid the formation of a perirectal fluid collection, by enlarging the volume of the residual rectal ampulla. A transanal Foley catheter was positioned for gas evacuation. Results There were no significant differences in mean tumor distance from the anal verge, mean lesion diameter, mean operative time, and pathological staging between the two groups. Neoadjuvant radio-chemotherapy (n-RCT) in Groups A and B was performed in 6 and 2 patients, respectively. Suture line dehiscence in Group A occurred in 3 patients (12 %) and in group B it was nil. In patients who experienced a dehiscence, mean lesion diameter was 6.3 cm (range 6–7). None of these patients had undergone n-RCT. Conclusion After ELRR by TEM, suture line dehiscence is presumably related to the wider size of the residual cavity. Obliteration of the residual perirectal space with hemostatic agent and by gauzes’ introduction in the rectal ampulla may reduce the risk of postoperative perirectal abscess and thus reduce the suture line dehiscence rate.Surgical Endoscopy 08/2014; 29(5). DOI:10.1007/s00464-014-3776-3 · 3.31 Impact Factor