Compensatory regulation of the sodium/phosphate cotransporters NaPi-IIc (SCL34A3) and Pit-2 (SLC20A2) during Pi deprivation and acidosis.
ABSTRACT The role of four Pi transporters in the renal handling of Pi was analyzed using functional and molecular methods. The abundance of NaPi-IIa, NaPi-IIc, and Pit-2 was increased by 100% in kidney from rats on a 0.1% Pi diet, compared to a 0.6% Pi diet. Pit-1 was not modified. Type II-mediated Pi uptake in Xenopus oocytes increased as the pH of the uptake medium increased, and the opposite occurred with Pit-1 and Pit-2. At pH 6.0, Pi uptake mediated through type II was approximately 10% of the uptake at pH 7.5, but the uptake through Pit-2 was 250% of the activity at pH 7.5. Real brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) responded to pH changes following the same pattern as type II transporters. Adaptation to a 0.1% Pi diet was accompanied by a 65% increase in the V (max) of BBMV Pi transport at pH 7.5, compared to a 0.6% Pi diet. The increase was only 11% at pH 6.0. Metabolic acidosis increased the expression of NaPi-IIc and Pit-2 in animals adapted to a low Pi diet, and phosphaturia was only observed in control diet animals. The combination of the pH effect, Pi adaptation, and metabolic acidosis suggests very modest involvement of Pit-2 in renal Pi handling. Real-time PCR and mathematical analyses of transport findings suggest that NaPi-IIa RNA accounts for 95% of all Pi transporters and that type II handles 97% of Pi transport at pH 7.5 and 60% of Pi transport at pH 6.0, depending on the pH and the physiological conditions.
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ABSTRACT: Inorganic arsenate (As(V)) is a common contaminant of underground water. Following oral exposure, it is assumed that As(V) is distributed and crosses cell membranes through inorganic phosphate (Pi) transporters. We have tested this hypothesis by studying the inhibition of rat Na/Pi cotransporters by As(V) in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in several rat tissues. The ubiquitously expressed type III Pi transporters (PiT-1 and PiT-2) showed a low affinity for As(V) (K(i) approximately 3.8 mM), similar to the Pi transport system in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (K(i) 1.5 mM). The type II renal isoforms, NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIc, were also poorly inhibited by As(V) (K(i) approximately 1 mM), similar to the Pi transport from kidney cortex brush-border membrane (BBM) vesicles. Conversely, the high-affinity intestinal transporter, NaPi-IIb, was very efficiently inhibited with a K(i) of 51 microM, similar to the Pi transport from intestinal BBM vesicles. Taking into account the 1.1 mM Pi in blood and renal ultrafiltrate, and the nanomolar range of As(V) exposures, we have determined that the contribution by Na/Pi cotransporters to As(V) membrane transport is negligible, given that 10-15 mM As(V) would be necessary in these fluids to be significantly transported. Intestinal transport is an exception, because Pi competition is weak, thereby considering that its concentration in lumen mainly depends on low Pi levels from ingested fresh water, and because As(V) very efficiently inhibits Pi intestinal transport. Our data agree with current toxicokinetic knowledge, and they explain the asymmetric excretion of trivalent and pentavalent arsenic species into bile and urine.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 07/2008; 232(1):125-34. · 3.98 Impact Factor
Article: PiT-2 coming out of the pits.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The renal proximal tubule plays a pivotal role in phosphate homeostasis by controlling phosphaturia. PiT-2, previously believed to be a basolaterally located "house-keeping" sodium-coupled phosphate transporter, is now shown to be a highly regulated apical membrane transporter. In conjunction with NaPi-2a and NaPi-2c, this constitute a triad of transporters with different transport characteristics and regulatory time-reponses to maximize versatility in phosphate homeostasis.American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 03/2009; 296(4):F689-90. · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Npt2 encodes a renal-specific, brush-border membrane Na+-phosphate (Pi) cotransporter that is expressed in the proximal tubule where the bulk of filtered Pi is reabsorbed. Mice deficient in the Npt2 gene were generated by targeted mutagenesis to define the role of Npt2 in the overall maintenance of Pi homeostasis, determine its impact on skeletal development, and clarify its relationship to autosomal disorders of renal Pi reabsorption in humans. Homozygous mutants (Npt2(-/-)) exhibit increased urinary Pi excretion, hypophosphatemia, an appropriate elevation in the serum concentration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D with attendant hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and decreased serum parathyroid hormone levels, and increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity. These biochemical features are typical of patients with hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH), a Mendelian disorder of renal Pi reabsorption. However, unlike HHRH patients, Npt2(-/-) mice do not have rickets or osteomalacia. At weaning, Npt2(-/-) mice have poorly developed trabecular bone and retarded secondary ossification, but, with increasing age, there is a dramatic reversal and eventual overcompensation of the skeletal phenotype. Our findings demonstrate that Npt2 is a major regulator of Pi homeostasis and necessary for normal skeletal development.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/1998; 95(9):5372-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor