Impact of Routine Hepatitis B Immunization on the Prevalence of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia
ABSTRACT To evaluate the impact of routine hepatitis B (HB) vaccination on the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among children in Pacific Island countries where HBV infection was highly endemic, we conducted HB serosurveys during 2000 to 2007 among women of childbearing age born before implementation of HB vaccination and among children born after its implementation.
Serum specimens were collected from children aged 2 to 6 years and their mothers in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia in 2000, children aged 2 to 9 years and their mothers in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia in 2005, and 5- to 9-year-old children and prenatal clinic patients in 2007 in Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). Specimens were tested for HB surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to HB core antigen (total anti-HBc). HB vaccination coverage was determined from health department vaccination registries. We defined chronic HBV infection as the presence of HBsAg.
Birthdose and 3 dose HB vaccination coverage was 48% and 87%, respectively, in Chuuk, 87% and 90% in Pohnpei, and 49% and 93% in RMI. Chronic HBV infection prevalence among children was 2.5% (9/362) in Chuuk, 1.5% (7/478) in Pohnpei and 1.8% (6/331) in RMI. Chronic HBV infection prevalence among women was 9.2% (21/229) in Chuuk, 4.4% (10/229) in Pohnpei, and 9.5% (11/116) in RMI.
Hepatitis B vaccination has resulted in a substantial decline in chronic infection in children in the Pacific Islands. HB vaccine effectiveness is high in this region, despite challenges in providing HB vaccine at birth and completing vaccination series on schedule.
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BackgroundHepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is prevalent in Asian immigrants in the USA. California’s Inland Empire region has a population of approximately four million, including an estimated 19,000 first generation Koreans. Our aim was to screen these adult individuals to establish HBV serological diagnoses, educate, and establish linkage to care.MethodsA community-based program was conducted in Korean churches from 11/2009 to 2/2010. Subjects were asked to complete a HBV background related questionnaire, provided with HBV education, and tested for serum HBsAg, HBsAb and HBcAb. HBsAg positive subjects were tested for HBV quantitative DNA, HBeAg and HBeAb, counseled and directed to healthcare providers. Subjects unexposed to HBV were invited to attend a HBV vaccination clinic.ResultsA total of 973 first generation Koreans were screened, aged 52.3y (18-93y), M/F: 384/589. Most (75%) had a higher than high school education and were from Seoul (62.2%). By questionnaire, 24.7% stated they had been vaccinated against HBV. The serological diagnoses were: HBV infected (3.0%), immune due to natural infection (35.7%), susceptible (20.1%), immune due to vaccination (40.3%), and other (0.9%). Men had a higher infection prevalence (4.9% vs. 1.7%, p = 0.004) and a lower vaccination rate (34.6% vs. 44.0%, p = 0.004) compared to women. Self-reports of immunization status were incorrect for 35.1% of subjects.ConclusionsThis large screening study in first generation Koreans in Southern California demonstrates: 1) a lower than expected HBV prevalence (3%), 2) a continued need for vaccination, and 3) a need for screening despite a reported history of vaccination.BMC Infectious Diseases 05/2014; 14(1):269. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-14-269 · 2.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study investigates the beliefs and perceptions related to type 2 diabetes that influence diabetes self-management behaviors for Marshallese in the United States. Using the health belief model as a theoretical framework, the researchers seek to better understand the underlying beliefs that motivate or impede diabetes self-management behaviors.The Diabetes Educator 11/2014; 41(1). DOI:10.1177/0145721714559131 · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Increasing numbers of people from the Federated States of Micronesia and the Republic of the Marshall Islands are presenting for clinical and public health services across the U.S., especially in Hawaii. We review the impact of historical and contemporary relationships between the U.S. and these Freely Associated States on the health status and health care access of these migrants. We draw upon both epidemiological evidence and clinical experience to suggest measures to assure health care access and appropriate clinical care for these populations. We also point to potential public health measures, and indicate directions for future research.