Impact of routine hepatitis B immunization on the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the marshall islands and the federated States of micronesia.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the impact of routine hepatitis B (HB) vaccination on the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among children in Pacific Island countries where HBV infection was highly endemic, we conducted HB serosurveys during 2000 to 2007 among women of childbearing age born before implementation of HB vaccination and among children born after its implementation.
Serum specimens were collected from children aged 2 to 6 years and their mothers in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia in 2000, children aged 2 to 9 years and their mothers in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia in 2005, and 5- to 9-year-old children and prenatal clinic patients in 2007 in Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). Specimens were tested for HB surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to HB core antigen (total anti-HBc). HB vaccination coverage was determined from health department vaccination registries. We defined chronic HBV infection as the presence of HBsAg.
Birthdose and 3 dose HB vaccination coverage was 48% and 87%, respectively, in Chuuk, 87% and 90% in Pohnpei, and 49% and 93% in RMI. Chronic HBV infection prevalence among children was 2.5% (9/362) in Chuuk, 1.5% (7/478) in Pohnpei and 1.8% (6/331) in RMI. Chronic HBV infection prevalence among women was 9.2% (21/229) in Chuuk, 4.4% (10/229) in Pohnpei, and 9.5% (11/116) in RMI.
Hepatitis B vaccination has resulted in a substantial decline in chronic infection in children in the Pacific Islands. HB vaccine effectiveness is high in this region, despite challenges in providing HB vaccine at birth and completing vaccination series on schedule.
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ABSTRACT: Vaccinating newborns against hepatitis B within 24 h of birth followed by two subsequent doses usually prevents mother-to-child transmission, but is demanding on health staff and systems especially in developing countries. To provide an evidence-base for guidelines on birth-dosing, a research study including key informant interviews, focus group discussions and surveys among community health workers and mothers of infants was conducted in four provinces of Viet Nam. The study aimed to elaborate different existing operational prototypes, their incremental operational costs and timeliness and coverage outcomes. Birth-dosing strategies were found to be location-specific and diverse. Vaccine storage site was the main determinant of the local birth-dosing mechanism and incremental cost, but not necessarily its timeliness and coverage. Major factors affecting birth-dose timeliness and coverage included community-based pregnancy tracking practices, relations of the immunization programme with private maternity services and large urban hospitals, perceived contraindications, and family perceptions. Future birth-dosing guidelines should specifically address the affects on timeliness and coverage identified.Vaccine 04/2008; 26(11):1411-9. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A nationwide hepatitis B vaccination program was implemented in Taiwan in July 1984. To assess the effect of the program on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, we studied the incidence of this cancer in children in Taiwan from 1981 to 1994. We collected data on liver cancer in children from Taiwan's National Cancer Registry, which receives reports from each of the country's 142 hospitals with more than 50 beds. Data on childhood liver cancer were also obtained from Taiwan's 17 major medical centers. To prevent the inclusion of cases of hepatoblastoma, the primary analysis was confined to liver cancers in children six years of age or older. Data were also obtained on mortality from liver cancer among children. The average annual incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in children 6 to 14 years of age declined from 0.70 per 100,000 children between 1981 and 1986 to 0.57 between 1986 and 1990, and to 0.36 between 1990 and 1994 (P<0.01). The corresponding rates of mortality from hepatocellular carcinoma also decreased. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in children 6 to 9 years of age declined from 0.52 for those born between 1974 and 1984 to 0.13 for those born between 1984 and 1986 (P<0.001). Since the institution of Taiwan's program of universal hepatitis B vaccination, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in children has declined.New England Journal of Medicine 06/1997; 336(26):1855-9. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aims of this project were: (1) to determine the extent to which infant hepatitis B immunisation is preventing chronic hepatitis B infection in children living in a sample of Pacific Island countries; and (2) to identify factors associated with the successful prevention of hepatitis B infection in these populations. A regional hepatitis B immunisation project which supplied hepatitis B vaccine to 10 Pacific Island countries began in 1995. Seroepidemiological surveys were conducted in Fiji, Kiribati, Tonga and Vanuatu in early 1998. These included immunised pre-school children and their biological mothers, and a historical control group of unimmunised students. Prevalence rates for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in the populations of students, mothers and their pre-school children were respectively: Fiji: 6.9, 6.6, 0.7%; Kiribati: 27.4, 15.1, 3.8%; Tonga: 11.1, 18.6, 3.8%; Vanuatu: 16.3, 12.3, 3.0%; and for all four countries: 13.2, 12.5, 2.6%. Compared to the historical control group of students, the pre-school population had a much lower probability of HBsAg positivity (relative risk [RR]=0.19 [95%CI: 0.12-0.31]). Statistically significant differences in risk were apparent for all the countries: Fiji: RR=0.10; Kiribati: RR=0.14; Tonga: RR=0.34; Vanuatu: RR=0.19. This is equivalent to an overall program effectiveness of 81% (95%CI: 69-88%) in reducing chronic carriage. Also, the overall protective effectiveness against vertical hepatitis B transmission resulting in HBsAg positivity among children exposed to HBeAg positive and negative carrier mothers, was estimated to be 70%. By age 6 months, when all children should have had three vaccine doses, completed immunisation rates ranged from 22 (Fiji) to 84% (Vanuatu). Coverage of the first dose being given within 2 days of birth varied from 43% in Kiribati to 92% in Tonga. In conclusion hepatitis B immunisation of infants in these four countries is having a substantial beneficial effect in preventing chronic hepatitis B infection. Nevertheless, there is significant scope for further improving the timeliness of immunisation.Vaccine 08/2000; 18(26):3059-66. · 3.49 Impact Factor