Isolipidic additions of fat from corn germ, corn distillers grains, or corn oil in dairy cow diets

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA.
Journal of Dairy Science (Impact Factor: 2.55). 11/2009; 92(11):5523-33. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2008-1867
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Eight multiparous and 8 primiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to determine the effects on dairy cow performance of feeding corn germ (CG) compared with dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or corn oil (CO). Four isolipidic dietary treatments were formulated: a control diet, a 14% corn germ diet (CGD), a 30% dry distillers grains with solubles diet (DGD), and a 2.5% corn oil diet (COD). All diets were formulated to contain 6.0% fat, with the fat in the control diet provided by a ruminally inert fat source. Dry matter intake was decreased by feeding the COD compared with the CGD; however, no difference in dry matter intake was observed among the control diet, the DGD, and the COD. Dietary treatments had no effect on milk yield, energy-corrected milk, or 4% fat-corrected milk. Feeding CG had no effect on milk fat percentage when compared with the control diet; however, milk fat percentage tended to decrease with DDGS and decreased with CO when compared with the CGD. Milk protein percentage decreased when cows were fed the COD compared with the control diet. Feeding CO tended to decrease milk fat yield compared with CG; however, dietary treatments had no effect on milk protein and lactose yield. Feed efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments and averaged 1.55 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of dry matter intake. Feeding DDGS and CO increased the concentration of vaccenic and conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat. Concentrations of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk were increased in response to feeding the 3 corn coproducts. Fat from CG appears to be relatively protected in the rumen when compared with that from DDGS and CO and therefore will not affect the production of milk fat to the degree of the more available fat in DDGS and CO.

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    ABSTRACT: The role of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) and associative effects of different levels of grape seed meal (GSM) fortified in DDGS, used as both protein and energy sources in the diet, on ruminal fermentation and microbiota were investigated using rumen-simulation technique. All diets consisted of hay and concentrate mixture with a ratio of 48:52 [dry matter (DM) basis], but were different in the concentrate composition. The control diet contained soybean meal (13.5% of diet DM) and barley grain (37%), whereas DDGS treatments, unfortified DDGS (19.5% of diet DM), or DDGS fortified with GSM, either at 1, 5, 10, or 20% were used entirely in place of soybean meal and part of barley grain at a 19.5 to 25% inclusion level. All diets had similar DM, organic matter, and crude protein contents, but consisted of increasing neutral detergent fiber and decreasing nonfiber carbohydrates levels with DDGS-GSM inclusion. Compared with the soy-based control diet, the unfortified DDGS treatment elevated ammonia concentration (19.1%) of rumen fluid associated with greater crude protein degradation (∼19.5%). Methane formation decreased with increasing GSM fortification levels (≥5%) in DDGS by which the methane concentration significantly decreased by 18.9 to 23.4 and 12.8 to 17.6% compared with control and unfortified DDGS, respectively. Compared with control, unfortified DDGS decreased butyrate proportion, and GSM fortification in the diet further decreased this variable. The proportions of genus Prevotella and Clostridium cluster XIVa were enhanced by the presence of DDGS without any associative effect of GSM fortification. The abundance of methanogenic archaea was similar, but their composition differed among treatments; whereas Methanosphaera spp. remained unchanged, proportion of Methanobrevibacter spp. decreased in DDGS-based diets, being the lowest with 20% GSM inclusion. The abundance of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, anaerobic fungi, and protozoa were decreased by the GSM inclusion. As revealed by principal component analysis, these variables were the microorganisms associated with the methane formation. Grape seed meal fortification level in the diet decreased DM and organic matter degradation, but this effect was more related to a depression of nonfiber carbohydrates degradation. It can be concluded that DDGS fortified with GSM can favorably modulate ruminal fermentation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.