Isolipidic additions of fat from corn germ, corn distillers grains, or corn oil in dairy cow diets.
ABSTRACT Eight multiparous and 8 primiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to determine the effects on dairy cow performance of feeding corn germ (CG) compared with dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or corn oil (CO). Four isolipidic dietary treatments were formulated: a control diet, a 14% corn germ diet (CGD), a 30% dry distillers grains with solubles diet (DGD), and a 2.5% corn oil diet (COD). All diets were formulated to contain 6.0% fat, with the fat in the control diet provided by a ruminally inert fat source. Dry matter intake was decreased by feeding the COD compared with the CGD; however, no difference in dry matter intake was observed among the control diet, the DGD, and the COD. Dietary treatments had no effect on milk yield, energy-corrected milk, or 4% fat-corrected milk. Feeding CG had no effect on milk fat percentage when compared with the control diet; however, milk fat percentage tended to decrease with DDGS and decreased with CO when compared with the CGD. Milk protein percentage decreased when cows were fed the COD compared with the control diet. Feeding CO tended to decrease milk fat yield compared with CG; however, dietary treatments had no effect on milk protein and lactose yield. Feed efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments and averaged 1.55 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of dry matter intake. Feeding DDGS and CO increased the concentration of vaccenic and conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat. Concentrations of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk were increased in response to feeding the 3 corn coproducts. Fat from CG appears to be relatively protected in the rumen when compared with that from DDGS and CO and therefore will not affect the production of milk fat to the degree of the more available fat in DDGS and CO.
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ABSTRACT: So far, in research studies, the age of cows has not been considered as a factor that may influence the changes in the content of milk ingredients with antioxidant properties modified by the feed supplementation. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of supplementation on the content of ingredients having antioxidant properties and to determine the influence of the age of cows taking part in the experiment on these changes. The experiment was conducted using 20 Polish Holstein Friesian cows, 10 primiparous and 10 multiparous. The combined supplementation of fish oil and linseed constituted the experimental factor. The milk of primiparous cows after 21 days of supplementation was characterised by a higher content of C18:1 trans-11, C18:2 cis-9, trans-11, α-retinol, α-tocopherol and β-lactoglobulin compared to the milk of multiparous cows, in which a higher level of lactoferrin, C20:5 and β-carotene was recorded. In both groups an increase in the total antioxidant status was noted (a higher level in the milk of primiparous cows). Modification of the diet of cows with fish oil and linseed significantly influenced antioxidant properties of their milk; however, the response of multiparous and primaparous cows was noticeably different to the supplement introduced.Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 03/2012; 92(12):2494-9. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of unprotected vegetable oils differing in fatty acid profiles with or without a commercial antioxidant (Agrado Plus, Novus International, St. Charles, MO) on dairy cattle performance, milk fatty acid profiles, and milk fat depression. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by production (high and low) and assigned to Agrado Plus or no Agrado Plus diets as the main plot in this experiment. The 6 cows in each of the fixed effect groups (high with and without Agrado, low with and without Agrado) were then assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square as a split plot with 21-d periods. The 6 dietary treatments in the split-plot Latin square were no added oil (control), or 5% DM as oil from palm (PO), high-oleic safflower (OSAF), high-linoleic safflower (LSAF), linseed (LNSD), or corn (CO). Added oil replaced corn starch in the total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to have similar crude protein and neutral detergent fiber, and consisted of 41.2% alfalfa silage, 18.3% corn silage, and 40.5% concentrate mix (dry matter basis). Feeding Agrado Plus did not affect milk, milk fat, or milk protein production or milk fatty acid composition in this study. No significant differences were found between oil feeding versus control for dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk protein yield, but oils other than PO significantly decreased milk fat concentration and proportion and yield of milk short- and medium-chain fatty acids (C(<16)). Feeding PO effectively maintained milk fat yield (1.18 kg/d) and concentration (3.44%), whereas the oils rich in linoleic acid (CO and LSAF) significantly decreased milk fat yield (0.98 and 0.86 vs. 1.14 kg/d) and concentration (3.05 and 2.83 vs. 3.41%) compared with control. Similar lactation performance between OSAF and LNSD suggests that oleic and linolenic acids are roughly equal in potency of milk fat depression.Journal of Dairy Science 05/2011; 94(5):2481-91. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The main goal of this experiment was to study the effect of milk fat depression, induced by supplementing diet with plant oils, on the bovine fat metabolism, with special interest in cholesterol levels. For this purpose 39 cows were divided in three groups and fed different rations: a control group (C) without any oil supplementation and two groups with soybean oil (SO) or rapeseed oil (RO) added to the partial mixed ration (PMR). A decrease in milk fat percentage was observed in both oil feedings with a higher decrease of -1·14 % with SO than RO with -0·98 % compared with the physiological (-0·15 %) decline in the C group. There was no significant change in protein and lactose yield. The daily milk cholesterol yield was lower in both oil rations than in control ration, while the blood cholesterol level showed an opposite variation. The milk fatty acid pattern showed a highly significant decrease of over 10 % in the amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in both oil feedings and a highly significant increase in mono (MUFA) and poly (PUFA) unsaturated fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) included. The results of this experiment suggest that the feeding of oil supplements has a high impact on milk fat composition and its significance for human health, by decreasing fats with a potentially negative effect (SFA and cholesterol) while simultaneously increasing others with positive (MUFA, PUFA, CLA).Journal of Dairy Research 12/2013; · 1.34 Impact Factor