Isolipidic additions of fat from corn germ, corn distillers grains, or corn oil in dairy cow diets.

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA.
Journal of Dairy Science (Impact Factor: 2.55). 11/2009; 92(11):5523-33. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2008-1867
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Eight multiparous and 8 primiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to determine the effects on dairy cow performance of feeding corn germ (CG) compared with dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or corn oil (CO). Four isolipidic dietary treatments were formulated: a control diet, a 14% corn germ diet (CGD), a 30% dry distillers grains with solubles diet (DGD), and a 2.5% corn oil diet (COD). All diets were formulated to contain 6.0% fat, with the fat in the control diet provided by a ruminally inert fat source. Dry matter intake was decreased by feeding the COD compared with the CGD; however, no difference in dry matter intake was observed among the control diet, the DGD, and the COD. Dietary treatments had no effect on milk yield, energy-corrected milk, or 4% fat-corrected milk. Feeding CG had no effect on milk fat percentage when compared with the control diet; however, milk fat percentage tended to decrease with DDGS and decreased with CO when compared with the CGD. Milk protein percentage decreased when cows were fed the COD compared with the control diet. Feeding CO tended to decrease milk fat yield compared with CG; however, dietary treatments had no effect on milk protein and lactose yield. Feed efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments and averaged 1.55 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of dry matter intake. Feeding DDGS and CO increased the concentration of vaccenic and conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat. Concentrations of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk were increased in response to feeding the 3 corn coproducts. Fat from CG appears to be relatively protected in the rumen when compared with that from DDGS and CO and therefore will not affect the production of milk fat to the degree of the more available fat in DDGS and CO.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The main goal of this experiment was to study the effect of milk fat depression, induced by supplementing diet with plant oils, on the bovine fat metabolism, with special interest in cholesterol levels. For this purpose 39 cows were divided in three groups and fed different rations: a control group (C) without any oil supplementation and two groups with soybean oil (SO) or rapeseed oil (RO) added to the partial mixed ration (PMR). A decrease in milk fat percentage was observed in both oil feedings with a higher decrease of -1·14 % with SO than RO with -0·98 % compared with the physiological (-0·15 %) decline in the C group. There was no significant change in protein and lactose yield. The daily milk cholesterol yield was lower in both oil rations than in control ration, while the blood cholesterol level showed an opposite variation. The milk fatty acid pattern showed a highly significant decrease of over 10 % in the amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in both oil feedings and a highly significant increase in mono (MUFA) and poly (PUFA) unsaturated fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) included. The results of this experiment suggest that the feeding of oil supplements has a high impact on milk fat composition and its significance for human health, by decreasing fats with a potentially negative effect (SFA and cholesterol) while simultaneously increasing others with positive (MUFA, PUFA, CLA).
    Journal of Dairy Research 12/2013; · 1.39 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This experiment was conducted to determine whether increasing the net energy (NEL) of a total mixed ration (TMR) with mainly unsaturated fat from corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) vs. rumen inert (RI)-saturated fat has similar impacts on animal performance. The experiment was an incomplete Youden square with three treatments and four 28-days periods, completed on a large commercial dairy using three early lactation pens each with approximately 380 multiparity cows. The TMR for all treatments was the same, except for 150 g/kg dry matter (DM) of each TMR which contained 90 g/kg high-protein DDGS (HPDDGS) and 60 g/kg beet pulp (i.e. low-fat control diet; LFC); 150 g/kg DDGS (i.e. high-fat diet with unsaturated fat; HFU); or 111 g/kg HPDDGS, 20 g/kg beet pulp and 19 g/kg RI fat (i.e. high-fat diet with saturated fat; HFS). The DM intake was highest (p < 0.05) for HFU-fed cows. Milk, fat and true protein yields, as well as milk energy output, were higher (p < 0.01) when cows were fed HFS vs. HFU and LFC diets. Milk true protein concentration was lowest (p < 0.01) for HFS-fed cows, but milk fat % was lowest (p < 0.01) for HFU and highest (p < 0.01) for HFS-fed cows. There were numerous differences (p < 0.01) in milk fatty acid levels amongst diets. The increase in body condition score was lowest (p < 0.01) for LFC. Whole tract digestibility of acid detergent fibre was lower (p < 0.01) for LFC vs. HFS cows, and fat digestion was lowest (p < 0.01) for LFC-fed cows. This DDGS, high in unsaturated fatty acids, was fed at high levels (i.e. 152 g/kg DM) with little impact on animal performance vs. a lower fat control diet, although addition of an RI-saturated fat to create a diet with a similarly higher fat level resulted in higher animal productivity.
    J Anim Physiol a Anim Nutr 07/2014; · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Growing traffic load in today's wireless networks brings up new challenges with respect to capacity. Simultaneously the demands for high quality voice services are rising. AMR half-rate in 8-PSK modulation combines both aspects and provides doubling the GERAN capacity just at a slight degradation of the perceived speech quality. A detailed performance study of 8-PSK modulated AMR half-rate codec modes is presented based on network planning studies and profound system level simulations. In addition a performance comparison to GMSK modulated AMR half-rate and full-rate codec modes has been provided. This analysis is focused on speech quality, coverage and capacity by AMR-NB in GERAN networks applying different frequency re-use patterns ranging from relaxed 4times3 to tight 1times1. The trade-off between quality and capacity has been demonstrated as well as the gain provided by 8-PSK modulated AMR half-rate. Network configurations offering full-rate quality by the allocation of half-rate channels have been identified. The capacity gain can be used to serve additional subscribers and/or to increase the quality and capacity of GPRS/EDGE data services