Isolipidic additions of fat from corn germ, corn distillers grains, or corn oil in dairy cow diets

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA.
Journal of Dairy Science (Impact Factor: 2.57). 11/2009; 92(11):5523-33. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2008-1867
Source: PubMed


Eight multiparous and 8 primiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to determine the effects on dairy cow performance of feeding corn germ (CG) compared with dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or corn oil (CO). Four isolipidic dietary treatments were formulated: a control diet, a 14% corn germ diet (CGD), a 30% dry distillers grains with solubles diet (DGD), and a 2.5% corn oil diet (COD). All diets were formulated to contain 6.0% fat, with the fat in the control diet provided by a ruminally inert fat source. Dry matter intake was decreased by feeding the COD compared with the CGD; however, no difference in dry matter intake was observed among the control diet, the DGD, and the COD. Dietary treatments had no effect on milk yield, energy-corrected milk, or 4% fat-corrected milk. Feeding CG had no effect on milk fat percentage when compared with the control diet; however, milk fat percentage tended to decrease with DDGS and decreased with CO when compared with the CGD. Milk protein percentage decreased when cows were fed the COD compared with the control diet. Feeding CO tended to decrease milk fat yield compared with CG; however, dietary treatments had no effect on milk protein and lactose yield. Feed efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments and averaged 1.55 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of dry matter intake. Feeding DDGS and CO increased the concentration of vaccenic and conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat. Concentrations of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk were increased in response to feeding the 3 corn coproducts. Fat from CG appears to be relatively protected in the rumen when compared with that from DDGS and CO and therefore will not affect the production of milk fat to the degree of the more available fat in DDGS and CO.

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Available from: Kenneth F Kalscheur, Aug 09, 2015
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    • "Dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) are a by-product of ethanol production by yeast fermentation of grain starch. The fermentation process removes starch of grains and, in turn, enriches the content of other nutrients, making DDGS an excellent source of protein, energy, and nonforage fiber in cattle diets (Abdelqader et al., 2009). However, DDGS can alter the characteristics of the diet because DDGS is low in physically effective fiber (small particle size of high specific density) and the NDF of DDGS is highly digestible (Zhang et al., 2010a). "
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    ABSTRACT: The role of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) and associative effects of different levels of grape seed meal (GSM) fortified in DDGS, used as both protein and energy sources in the diet, on ruminal fermentation and microbiota were investigated using rumen-simulation technique. All diets consisted of hay and concentrate mixture with a ratio of 48:52 [dry matter (DM) basis], but were different in the concentrate composition. The control diet contained soybean meal (13.5% of diet DM) and barley grain (37%), whereas DDGS treatments, unfortified DDGS (19.5% of diet DM), or DDGS fortified with GSM, either at 1, 5, 10, or 20% were used entirely in place of soybean meal and part of barley grain at a 19.5 to 25% inclusion level. All diets had similar DM, organic matter, and crude protein contents, but consisted of increasing neutral detergent fiber and decreasing nonfiber carbohydrates levels with DDGS-GSM inclusion. Compared with the soy-based control diet, the unfortified DDGS treatment elevated ammonia concentration (19.1%) of rumen fluid associated with greater crude protein degradation (∼19.5%). Methane formation decreased with increasing GSM fortification levels (≥5%) in DDGS by which the methane concentration significantly decreased by 18.9 to 23.4 and 12.8 to 17.6% compared with control and unfortified DDGS, respectively. Compared with control, unfortified DDGS decreased butyrate proportion, and GSM fortification in the diet further decreased this variable. The proportions of genus Prevotella and Clostridium cluster XIVa were enhanced by the presence of DDGS without any associative effect of GSM fortification. The abundance of methanogenic archaea was similar, but their composition differed among treatments; whereas Methanosphaera spp. remained unchanged, proportion of Methanobrevibacter spp. decreased in DDGS-based diets, being the lowest with 20% GSM inclusion. The abundance of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, anaerobic fungi, and protozoa were decreased by the GSM inclusion. As revealed by principal component analysis, these variables were the microorganisms associated with the methane formation. Grape seed meal fortification level in the diet decreased DM and organic matter degradation, but this effect was more related to a depression of nonfiber carbohydrates degradation. It can be concluded that DDGS fortified with GSM can favorably modulate ruminal fermentation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Dairy Science 01/2015; 98(4). DOI:10.3168/jds.2014-8751 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    • "Our results agree with previous reports (Duckett et al., 2002; Jenkins et al., 2008; Duckett and Gillis, 2010) in that the inclusion of unsaturated fatty acids in rations formulated for beef cattle increases the intake and ruminal biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids. Further studies on ruminal biohydrogenation are warranted because the ration composition and the fatty acid metabolism by the ruminal microbial community affect the fatty acid composition of ruminant food products (Palmquist et al., 1993; Beam et al., 2000; Jenkins et al., 2008; Abdelqader et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on ruminal biohydrogenation and duodenal flow of fatty acids, and to evaluate effects on the ruminal and duodenal microbial community using Roche 454 pyro-sequencing. Three crossbred steers (average BW 780 ± 137 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulae were used in a 3-diet, 6-period crossover design. Animals were housed in individual free stalls and fed twice daily at 0700 and 1900 h. Diets (DM basis) were 1) CONTROL, 19.5% corn bran, 20% sorghum silage, 60% brome hay, 0.5% trace minerals, and 0.25% urea, but no DDGS; 2) LOW DDGS, inclusion of 9.75% DDGS replacing equal percentage of corn bran; 3) HIGH DDGS, inclusion of 19.5% DDGS completely replacing corn bran. Feed ingredients and duodenal digesta samples were analyzed for fatty acid composition. The DNA was extracted from isolated mixed ruminal bacterial samples and from intestinal digesta samples. The V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced, and bacterial phylogenetic analysis was conducted. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Biohydrogenation of C18:1 increased (P < 0.01) with DDGS inclusion; means were 68.3, 75.6, and 79.3 ± 4.3% for CONTROL, LOW DDGS, and HIGH DDGS, respectively. In the same order, means of biohydrogenation of C18:2 (P < 0.05) were 84.1, 91.5, and 93.3 ± 3.4%. Duodenal flow of total fatty acids increased (P < 0.01) with DDGS inclusion; means were 134, 168, and 223 ± 33 g/d for CONTROL, LOW DDGS, and HIGH DDGS, respectively. In the same order, means of C18:0 flow (P < 0.01) were 51, 86, and 121 ± 18 g/d. DDGS did not affect the predominant bacterial phyla in the gut, which were Bacteroidetes (P = 0.62) and Firmicutes (P = 0.71). However, the phylum Fibrobacteres decreased (P < 0.01) when DDGS was fed with means of 5.5, 6.0 and 3.7 ± 0.6% for CONTROL, LOW DDGS, and HIGH DDGS, respectively. Fibrobacteres were lower (P < 0.01) in isolated ruminal bacterial samples compared to duodenal digesta samples with means of 0.1 and 10.1 ± 0.6%, respectively. Overall, the inclusion of DDGS in diets increased ruminal biohydrogenation of C18:1 and C18:2, which increased duodenal flow of C18:0. In addition, the bacterial community of the rumen clustered separately from that of the duodenum suggesting different bacterial diversity between isolated ruminal bacteria and duodenal digesta.
    Journal of Animal Science 02/2014; 92(2):733-43. DOI:10.2527/jas.2013-7223 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    • "The fatty acid profile of the control and wheat DDGS containing TMR were consistent with other results of our group (Dugan et al., 2010) and the fatty acid composition of the corn DDGS TMR were consistent with Abdelqader et al. (2009). Compared to wheat DDGS, corn DDGS has a higher oil content (Rasco et al., 1987) and, since corn and wheat oils are known to be rich in 18:2n-6 (Becker, 2008), this would likely provide additional substrate for ruminal biohydrogenation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Backfat composition was compared in steers fed either a control (barley grain based) diet or diets containing increasing levels of corn or wheat derived dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS; 20 g or 40 g/100 g of total mixed ration on a dry mater basis). Backfat total saturated fatty acids, other c,t-/c,c-/t,t-dienes, and conjugated linoleic acids, were unaffected by feeding DDGS. Monounsaturated fatty acids were higher in control steers while polyunsaturated fatty acids were higher in backfat from DDGS fed steers. Overall, backfat from control and wheat derived DDGS fed steers had lower levels of trans-18:1 and consequently lower levels of individual trans-18:1 isomers and a higher 11t-/10t-ratio compared to backfat from corn derived DDGS fed steers. This indicates that beef from cattle fed wheat derived DDGS had a fatty acid profile more favourable to human health than cattle fed corn DDGS. Crown
    Animal Feed Science and Technology 05/2010; 157(3-4):168-172. DOI:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2010.03.009 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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