Can Association Between Preterm Birth and Autism be Explained by Maternal or Neonatal Morbidity?
ABSTRACT We examined whether an association between preterm birth and risk of autistic disorders could be explained by pregnancy complications or neonatal morbidity.
This Swedish, population-based, case-control study included 1216 case subjects with autistic disorders who were born between 1987 and 2002 and 6080 control subjects who were matched with respect to gender, birth year, and birth hospital. We assessed associations between gestational age and autistic disorders and adjusted for maternal, birth, and neonatal characteristics. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Compared with infants born at term, the unadjusted ORs for autistic disorders among very and moderately preterm infants were 2.05 [95% CI: 1.26-3.34] and 1.55 [95% CI: 1.22-1.96], respectively. When we controlled for maternal, pregnancy, and birth characteristics, ORs were reduced to 1.48 [95% CI: 0.77-2.84] and 1.33 [95% CI: 0.98-1.81], respectively. When we also controlled for neonatal complications, ORs were 0.98 [95% CI: 0.45-2.16] and 1.25 [95% CI: 0.90-1.75], respectively. Reductions in risks of autistic disorders related to preterm birth were primarily attributable to preeclampsia, small-for-gestational age birth, congenital malformations, low Apgar scores at 5 minutes, and intracranial bleeding, cerebral edema, or seizures in the neonatal period. Neonatal hypoglycemia, respiratory distress, and neonatal jaundice were associated with increased risk of autistic disorders for term but not preterm infants.
The increased risk of autistic disorders related to preterm birth is mediated primarily by prenatal and neonatal complications that occur more commonly among preterm infants.
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ABSTRACT: Animal models indicate that maternal infection during pregnancy can result in behavioral abnormalities and neuropathologies in offspring. We examined the association between maternal inpatient diagnosis with infection during pregnancy and risk of ASD in a Swedish nationwide register-based birth cohort born 1984-2007 with follow-up through 2011. In total, the sample consisted of 2,371,403 persons with 24,414 ASD cases. Infection during pregnancy was defined from ICD codes. In the sample, 903 mothers of ASD cases (3.7%) had an inpatient diagnosis of infection during pregnancy. Logistic regression models adjusted for a number of covariates yielded odds ratios indicating approximately a 30% increase in ASD risk associated with any inpatient diagnosis of infection. Timing of infection did not appear to influence risk in the total Swedish population, since elevated risk of ASD was associated with infection in all trimesters. In a subsample analysis, infections were associated with greater risk of ASD with intellectual disability than for ASD without intellectual disability. The present study adds to the growing body of evidence, encompassing both animal and human studies, that supports possible immune-mediated mechanisms underlying the etiology of ASD.Brain Behavior and Immunity 09/2014; 44. DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2014.09.001 · 6.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We performed a systematic literature search regarding maternal diabetes before and during pregnancy and the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring. Of the 178 potentially relevant articles, 12 articles including three cohort studies and nine case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Both the meta-analyses of cohort studies and case-control studies showed significant associations. The pooled relative risk and 95 % confidence interval (CI) among cohort studies was 1.48 (1.25-1.75, p < 0.001). For case-control studies, the pooled odds ratio and 95 % CI was 1.72 (1.24-2.41, p = 0.001). No indication of significant heterogeneity across studies or publication bias was observed. In conclusion, maternal diabetes was significantly associated with a greater risk of ASD in the offspring.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 09/2013; DOI:10.1007/s10803-013-1928-2 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The results of conducted research studies suggest that heredity and early fetal and neonatal development play a causal role in autism. The objective was to determine a relationship between pre-, peri-, and neonatal factors and autism. The relationship between genders and individual risk factors for autism was also examined. A case-control study was conducted among 288 children (96 cases with childhood or atypical autism and 192 controls individually matched to cases by the year of birth, sex, and general practitioners). Data on autism diagnosis and other medical conditions were acquired from physicians. All other information on potential autism risk factors were collected from mothers. Autism risk was significantly higher when mothers were taking medications (OR=2.72, 95%CI: 1.47-5.04) and smoked during pregnancy (OR=3.32, 95%CI: 1.12-9.82). It was also significantly associated with neonatal dyspnea (OR=3.20, 95%CI: 1.29-8.01) and congenital anomalies (OR=7.17, 95%CI: 2.23-23.1). In gender analysis only congenital anomalies were significantly associated with autism for girls but all of mentioned factors stayed independent risk factors for boys.Central European Journal of Medicine 08/2013; 8(4). DOI:10.2478/s11536-013-0174-5 · 0.21 Impact Factor