Article

Direct impression on agar surface as a diagnostic sampling procedure for candida balanitis.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Hospital S João, Alameda Prof Hernani Monteiro, Porto 4202-451, Portugal.
Sexually transmitted infections (Impact Factor: 3.08). 10/2009; 86(1):32-5. DOI: 10.1136/sti.2009.037820
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The diagnosis of candida balanitis should be based upon both clinical and mycological data. The procedure of material collection is a critical issue to confirm or rule out the clinical diagnosis of candida balanitis.
To compare direct impression of the glans on the agar surface of solid culture media with the collection of genital exudates with cotton swab for the diagnosis of candida balanitis.
A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out during a 36-month period. Sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees with balanitis and asymptomatic men were included. Specimens for yeast culture were collected from the glans penis and inner preputial layer using the direct impression on CHROMagar candida medium and by swabbing with a sterile cotton swab.
Among 478 men enrolled, 189 had balanitis. The prevalence of candida balanitis was 17.8% (85/478) confirmed after culture by direct impression; the swab method detected only 54/85 (63.5%) of these men. Of the 289 asymptomatic men, 36 (12.5%) yielded Candida spp; the swab method detected only 38.9% of these men. The risk of having candida balanitis is 8.9 (IC 95% 2.48 to 32.04) whenever the number of candida colonies recovered by direct impression was greater than 10.
Direct impression on CHROMagar candida medium resulted in the highest Candida spp recovery rate. More than 10 colonies yielded by impression culture were statistically associated with candida balanitis. This method shows the ideal profile for sampling the male genital area for yeasts and should be included in the management of balanitis.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
167 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fungal infections of the genitals are probably more common than realized; however, relatively few reports concerning fungal genital infections exist in the literature. In this review, the fungal microbiota of the penis are highlighted, and the epidemiological characteristics of Candida balanitis, penile pityriasis versicolor, and tinea genitalis are addressed. In addition, the benefits of circumcision on male genital infections are included. However, systemic mycoses affecting the penis and/or scrotum will not be addressed in this review. To obtain a reliable diagnosis of genital fungal infections, medical history, clinical examination, and mycological and histological investigations of the lesions are critical.
    Critical Reviews in Microbiology 08/2011; 37(3):237-44. · 6.09 Impact Factor
  • Sexually transmitted infections 12/2010; 86(7):485. · 3.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that Candida can be sexually transmitted; however, the contribution of sexual transmission to the pathogenesis of genital candidosis needs further elucidation. The aim was to evaluate genital candidosis and its transmissibility in heterosexual couples. Heterosexual couples were recruited among attendees of an Sexually Transmitted Diseases clinic. Specimens for yeast culture were collected from the glans penis and inner preputial layer using direct impression on CHROMagar Candida medium; vaginal exudates were collected using a cotton swab with subsequent inoculation on CHROMagar Candida medium. Mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis was performed to compare Candida isolates from both partners. A total of 64 couples were enrolled in the study. Frequency of sexual intercourse was significantly higher in couples where both partners yielded positive cultures and with at least one having genital candidosis (Odds ratios: 6.844; 95% CI 1.408-33.266). The same Candida species was found in both partners in 25% (16/64) of all couples but only 17.2% (11/64) were genetically similar. In total 12 of the 34 women suffering from vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC) had recurrent VVC (RVVC); two sexual partners of RVVC women (16.7%) had candida positive cultures, compared with 15 (68.2%) sexual partners of non RVVC women (Odds ratios: 0.093; 95% CI 0.016-0.544). Only in a few heterosexual couples a genetic similarity of Candida species recovered from both partners was found. RVVC women were more likely to have an asymptomatic candida negative sexual partner. This study suggests that male genitalia do not represent a relevant reservoir for RVVC; thus, the relevance of sexual transmission should not be emphasized.
    Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 02/2011; 25(2):145-51. · 2.69 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
6 Downloads
Available from
Sep 8, 2014