A coat of many colors: neuroimmune crosstalk in human immunodeficiency virus infection.
ABSTRACT The use of antiretroviral therapy has reduced mortality and increased the quality of life of HIV-1-infected people, particularly in more developed countries where access to treatment is more widespread. However, morbidities continue, which include HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Subtle cognitive abnormalities and low-level viral replication underlie disease. The balance between robust antiviral adaptive immunity, neuronal homeostatic mechanisms, and neuroprotective factors on one hand and toxicities afforded by dysregulated immune activities on the other govern disease. New insights into the pathobiological processes for neuroimmune-linked disease and ways to modulate such activities for therapeutic gain are discussed. Better understanding of the complexities of immune regulation during HAND can improve diagnosis and disease outcomes but is also relevant for the pathogenesis of a broad range of neurodegenerative disorders.
Article: In vivo expression of proinflammatory cytokines in HIV encephalitis: an analysis of 11 autopsy cases.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: As the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia complex (ADC), cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta have been thought to have toxic effects on CNS cells and induce neuronal cell death. However, many of the discussions have been based on the studies done by in vitro experiments. There are only a few reports which demonstrate proinflammatory cytokines directly in vivo in HIV encephalitis (HIVE) brains, and roles of these cytokines with relation to HIV-1 infection are not yet clarified. In the present study, we examined 11 autopsy cases of HIVE using immunohistochemistry, and explored which cell types expressed these cytokines and whether expression of cytokines was related to viral infection. IL-1beta was detected in the frontal white matter of all 11 cases where microglial nodules were observed to varying degrees, whereas TNF-alpha was detected in seven cases. IL-1beta- or TNF-alpha-positive cells were almost restricted to CD68-positive macrophages/microglia and mild expression of these cytokines by astrocytes was observed in two cases with severe HIVE. IL-1beta was detected in some HIVp24-positive multinucleated giant cells. However, we could not detect TNF-alpha expression in the HIVp24-positive cells, which indicates that IL-1beta is induced by HIV-1 infection. In conclusion, a macrophage/microglia lineage is the main cell type to release cytokines in HIVE, and IL-1beta expression by HIV-1-infected cells may be one of the important factors for induction of HIVE. In addition, many non-infected macrophages/microglia as well as some astrocytes express IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, which might contribute to pathogenesis of ADC.Neuropathology 02/2009; 29(4):433-42. · 2.02 Impact Factor
Article: Impact of combination antiretroviral therapy on cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA and neurocognitive performance.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine whether antiretroviral regimens with good central nervous system (CNS) penetration control HIV in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and improve cognition. Multisite longitudinal observational study. Research clinics. One hundred and one individuals with advanced HIV beginning or changing a new potent antiretroviral regimen were enrolled in the study. Data for 79 participants were analyzed. Participants underwent structured history and neurological examination, venipuncture, lumbar puncture, and neuropsychological tests at entry, 24, and 52 weeks. Antiretroviral regimens were categorized as CNS penetration effectiveness (CPE) rank of at least 2 or less than 2. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations over the course of the study. Concentration of HIV RNA in CSF and blood and neuropsychological test scores (NPZ4 and NPZ8). Odds of suppression of CSF HIV RNA were higher when CPE rank was at least 2 than when it was less than 2. Odds of suppression of plasma HIV RNA were not associated with CPE rank. Among participants with impaired neuropsychological performance at entry, those prescribed regimens with a CPE rank of at least 2 or more antiretrovirals had lower composite NPZ4 scores over the course of the study. Antiretroviral regimens with good CNS penetration, as assessed by CPE rank, are more effective in controlling CSF (and presumably CNS) viral replication than regimens with poorer penetration. In this study, antiretrovirals with good CNS penetration were associated with poorer neurocognitive performance. A larger controlled trial is required before any conclusions regarding the influence of specific antiretrovirals on neurocognitive performance should be made.AIDS (London, England) 06/2009; 23(11):1359-66. · 4.91 Impact Factor
Article: CD4+ and CD8+ cells accumulate in the brains of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that CD4+ T lymphocytes accumulate in brains of end-stage acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, we examined T-lymphocyte subsets in the CA1, CA3, and CA4 regions of the hippocampus of AIDS patients with (n = 10) and without (n = 11) human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis (HIVE) plus controls (n = 7). HIV p24 antigen was common in monocytic cells and rare in activated/memory CD45RO+ lymphocytes. Hippocampal activated/memory CD45RO+ T lymphocytes significantly increased (P <.001) in seven of the eight hippocampal subregions with hippocampal HIVE (1.14 +/- 1.4 T cells/high-power field [hpf]), but AIDS hippocampus without HIVE were similar to controls (0.03 +/- 0.07 T cells/hpf and 0.03 +/- 0.09 T cells/hpf, respectively). CD45RO+ and CD3+ lymphocytes were similar in numbers and distribution, whereas CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes were weakly immunoreactive and less frequent. All four lymphocyte subtypes were present in perivascular spaces and microglial nodules of HIVE, and had direct contact with neurons. Monocytes, microglia, and multinucleated giant cells were immunoreactive for CD4 in AIDS cases with hippocampal HIVE but microglia in remaining AIDS cases and controls were CD4-. CD68+ macrophages significantly increased in hippocampus of HIVE patients (P <.05) and were predominately perivascular in the absence of local HIVE. These studies show that CD4+ T lymphocytes, as well as CD8+ T lymphocytes, participate in the local inflammatory response of HIVE in end-stage AIDS patients, and suggest that their recruitment requires local HIV infection. The perineuronal location of CD4+ cells provides the potential for lymphocyte-mediated neuronal injury or trans-receptor-mediated neuronal infection.Journal of NeuroVirology 02/2003; 9(1):36-44. · 2.31 Impact Factor