Disease-causing mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator determine the functional responses of alveolar macrophages.
ABSTRACT Alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a major role in host defense against microbial infections in the lung. To perform this function, these cells must ingest and destroy pathogens, generally in phagosomes, as well as secrete a number of products that signal other immune cells to respond. Recently, we demonstrated that murine alveolar macrophages employ the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel as a determinant in lysosomal acidification (Di, A., Brown, M. E., Deriy, L. V., Li, C., Szeto, F. L., Chen, Y., Huang, P., Tong, J., Naren, A. P., Bindokas, V., Palfrey, H. C., and Nelson, D. J. (2006) Nat. Cell Biol. 8, 933-944). Lysosomes and phagosomes in murine cftr(-/-) AMs failed to acidify, and the cells were deficient in bacterial killing compared with wild type controls. Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations in CFTR and is characterized by chronic lung infections. The information about relationships between the CFTR genotype and the disease phenotype is scarce both on the organismal and cellular level. The most common disease-causing mutation, DeltaF508, is found in 70% of patients with cystic fibrosis. The mutant protein fails to fold properly and is targeted for proteosomal degradation. G551D, the second most common mutation, causes loss of function of the protein at the plasma membrane. In this study, we have investigated the impact of CFTR DeltaF508 and G551D on a set of core intracellular functions, including organellar acidification, granule secretion, and microbicidal activity in the AM. Utilizing primary AMs from wild type, cftr(-/-), as well as mutant mice, we show a tight correlation between CFTR genotype and levels of lysosomal acidification, bacterial killing, and agonist-induced secretory responses, all of which would be expected to contribute to a significant impact on microbial clearance in the lung.
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ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common and deadly inherited disease, caused by mutations in the CFTR gene that encodes a cAMP-activated chloride channel. One outstanding manifestation of the disease is the persistent bacterial infection and inflammation in the lung, which claims over 90% of CF mortality. It has been debated whether neutrophil-mediated phagocytic innate immunity has any intrinsic defect that contributes to the host lung defense failure. Here we compared phagosomal CFTR targeting, hypochlorous acid (HOCl) production, and microbial killing of the neutrophils from myeloid Cftr-inactivated (Myeloid-Cftr-/-) mice and the non-inactivated control (Cftrfl10) mice. We found that the mutant CFTR that lacked Exon-10 failed to target to the neutrophil phagosomes. This dysfunction resulted in impaired intraphagosomal HOCl production and neutrophil microbial killing. In vivo lung infection with a lethal dose of Pseudomonas aeruginosa caused significantly higher mortality in the myeloid CF mice than in the controls. The myeloid-Cftr-/- lungs were deficient in bacterial clearance, and had sustained neutrophilic inflammation and stalled transition from early to late immunity. These manifestations recapitulated the symptoms of human CF lungs. The data altogether suggest that myeloid CFTR expression is critical to normal host lung defense. CFTR dysfunction in neutrophils compromises the phagocytic innate immunity, which may predispose CF lungs to infection.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106813. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106813 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa can infect almost any site in the body but most often targets epithelial cell-lined tissues such as the airways, skin, and the cornea of the eye. A common predisposing factor is cystic fibrosis (CF), caused by defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane-conductance regulator (CFTR). Previously, we showed that when P. aeruginosa enters epithelial cells it replicates intracellularly and occupies plasma membrane blebs. This phenotype is dependent on the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) effector ExoS, shown by others to induce host cell apoptosis. Here, we examined mechanisms for P. aeruginosa-induced bleb formation, focusing on its relationship to apoptosis and the CFTR. The data showed that P. aeruginosa-induced blebbing in epithelial cells is independent of actin contraction and is inhibited by hyperosmotic media (400 to 600 mOsM), distinguishing bacterially induced blebs from apoptotic blebs. Cells with defective CFTR displayed enhanced bleb formation upon infection, as demonstrated using bronchial epithelial cells from a patient with cystic fibrosis and a CFTR inhibitor, CFTR(Inh)-172. The defect was found to be correctable either by incubation in hyperosmotic media or by complementation with CFTR (pGFP-CFTR), suggesting that the osmoregulatory function of CFTR counters P. aeruginosa-induced bleb-niche formation. Accordingly, and despite their reduced capacity for bacterial internalization, CFTR-deficient cells showed greater bacterial occupation of blebs and enhanced intracellular replication. Together, these data suggest that P. aeruginosa bleb niches are distinct from apoptotic blebs, are driven by osmotic forces countered by CFTR, and could provide a novel mechanism for bacterial persistence in the host.mBio 02/2015; 6(2). DOI:10.1128/mBio.02533-14 · 6.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nicotinic adenine acid dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is one of the most potent endogenous Ca(2+) mobilizing messengers. NAADP mobilizes Ca(2+) from an acidic lysosome-related store, which can be subsequently amplified into global Ca(2+) waves by calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) from ER/SR via Ins(1,4,5)P 3 receptors or ryanodine receptors. A body of evidence indicates that 2 pore channel 2 (TPC2), a new member of the superfamily of voltage-gated ion channels containing 12 putative transmembrane segments, is the long sought after NAADP receptor. Activation of NAADP/TPC2/Ca(2+) signaling inhibits the fusion between autophagosome and lysosome by alkalizing the lysosomal pH, thereby arresting autophagic flux. In addition, TPC2 is downregulated during neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, and TPC2 downregulation actually facilitates the neural lineage entry of ES cells. Here we propose the mechanism underlying how NAADP-induced Ca(2+) release increases lysosomal pH and discuss the role of TPC2 in neural differentiation of mouse ES cells.Communicative & integrative biology 11/2013; 6(6):e27595. DOI:10.4161/cib.27595