Pulmonary hypertension in heart transplantation: discrepant prognostic impact of pre-operative compared with 1-year post-operative right heart hemodynamics.
ABSTRACT The prognostic impact of pulmonary hypertension (PH) before and after heart transplantation (HTx) is debated. We investigated: (i) the significance of pre-operative reversible PH on post-operative survival; (ii) the value of recatheterization while on the waiting list; (iii) the evolution of right heart hemodynamics (RHH) after HTx; and (iv) the prognostic impact of PH at 1 year after HTx.
We reviewed the records of 500 HTx recipients transplanted between 1983 and 2007. Pre-operatively, a non-PH group (Group 1, n = 365) fulfilled directly our RHH criteria for HTx, while a PH group (Group 2, n = 135) was accepted after reversibility of PH by acute vasodilatory testing. Recatheterization was performed every third month while on the waiting list and repeatedly after transplantation.
With a follow-up of 6.8 +/- 5.1 years and a 50% survival rate of 12.1 +/- 5.4 years, our main findings were as follows: (i) Patients with reversible PH on vasodilatory testing had a survival rate similar to that of patients without PH (11.7 +/- 0.8 vs 12.1 +/- 0.5 years, p = 0.80). (ii) Pre-operative recatheterization was of limited value as RHH remained stable. Five percent of patients died while on the waiting list and 2 improved clinically and were removed. (iii) Mean pulmonary artery pressure (MAP) was reduced from 28 +/- 9 and 40 +/- 8 mm Hg pre-operatively to 21 +/- 7 and 24 +/- 6 mm Hg after 2 weeks and 16 +/- 7 and 18 +/- 8 mm Hg at 3 years in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. (iv) Recipients with MAP >20 mm Hg at 1 year post-HTx had significantly lower survival than those with MAP <or=20 mm Hg (11.5 +/- 0.7 vs 15.6 +/- 0.6 years, p < 0.001).
Elevated pulmonary pressure 1 year after HTx provides significant prognostic information regarding long-term outcome, whereas pre-operative reversible PH in this group does not influence survival.
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ABSTRACT: Generally accepted donor criteria for heart transplantation limit allografts from donors within approximately 20% to 30% of the recipient's weight. We analyzed the impact of donor-to-recipient weight ratio on survival after heart transplantation. Adult heart transplant recipients reported to the United Network for Organ Sharing from 1999 to 2007 were divided into 3 groups based on donor-to-recipient weight ratio: <0.8, 0.8 to 1.2, and >1.2. Kaplan-Meier methodology was used to estimate survival. Propensity-adjusted Cox regression modeling was used to analyze predictors of mortality. A total of 15 284 heart transplant recipients were analyzed; 2078 had weight ratio of <0.8, 9684 had 0.8 to 1.2, and 3522 had >1.2. Kaplan-Meier survival was not statistically different between groups at 5 years (P=0.26). Among patients with weight ratio <0.8, 5-year survival was lower for recipients with high pulmonary vascular resistance (>4 Woods units; P=0.02). Among recipients with high pulmonary vascular resistance, 5-year survival was similar for those with weight ratio 0.8 to 1.2 and >1.2 (P=0.44). Furthermore, male recipients with elevated pulmonary vascular resistance who received hearts from female donors had a significantly worse survival than males who received hearts from male donors (P=0.01). Propensity-adjusted multivariable analysis demonstrated that weight ratio <0.8 did not predict mortality (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.27; P=0.21). Five-year survival after propensity matching was not statistically different between those with weight ratio <0.8 versus >/=0.8 (P=0.37). Weight ratio did not predict mortality after heart transplantation. However, recipients with elevated pulmonary vascular resistance who received undersized hearts had poor survival. Furthermore, in the setting of high pulmonary vascular resistance, male recipients who received hearts from female donors had worse survival than those who received hearts from male donors. Extending donor criteria to include undersized hearts in select recipients should be considered.Circulation 10/2008; 118(14 Suppl):S83-8. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is a well-known risk factor for right ventricular failure after orthotopic cardiac transplantation. The influence of preoperative transpulmonary pressure gradient (TPG) and PVR on post-transplant 30 days mortality was evaluated. To analyze the response of PVR and TPG to cardiac transplantation, we analyzed 718 adult patients undergoing primary cardiac transplantation. Indications for operation were: 35.2% ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM), 61.2% idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and 3.3% other diagnosis (e.g. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy). The mean age (51.9) and the mean ischemic time (169.7 min) were comparable between 30 days survivors and nonsurvivors. Student's t-tests and chi-square analysis were used to compare data from 30-day survivors and nonsurvivors. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. Fisher's exact test and multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between hemodynamic parameters and outcome after transplantation. Primary end-point was 30 days mortality and secondary end-point long-term survival of patient groups with different TPG and PVR values. In survivors the mean TPG was 10.3 +/- 5.1 (mean +/- SD) vs. 13 +/- 6.6 in patients who died after transplantation (P = 0.0012). The PVR was 2.6 +/- 1.4 vs. 3.5 +/- 2.2 (P = 0.0012). In multivariate logistic regression, the parameters TPG and PVR exhibit a significant influence between survivors and nonsurvivors after cardiac transplantation within 30 days (TPG: P = 0.0012; PVR: P = 0.0012). The mortality rates in patients with TPG > 11 mmHg and PVR < 2.8 Wood units or TPG < 11 mmHg and PVR > 2.8 Wood units were comparable to those with TPG < 11 mmHg and PVR < 2.8 mmHg. The TPG is an important predictor in nonrejection-related early mortality after orthotopic cardiac transplantation. The determination of TPG in combination with PVR is a more reliable predictor of early post-transplant survival than PVR alone.Transplant International 05/2005; 18(4):390-5. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Impaired renal function is associated with increased mortality among heart failure patients. Although a significant proportion of heart transplant (HTx) recipients have reduced renal function at 1 year post-HTx, no previous study has evaluated the associated risk for both all-cause and cardiac mortality. Hence, we assessed the relationship between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at 1 year post-HTx and all-cause and cardiac mortality and development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). We evaluated 381 patients with a minimum survival of 1 year post-HTx and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study formula was used to calculate estimated GFR. Mortality and angiographic CAV were defined as separate endpoints, and median follow-up was 7.4 and 4.0 years, respectively. During the follow-up period, 122 patients died and 154 patients developed CAV. Reduced GFR pre-HTx was not a risk factor for either endpoint. Overall, 193 (51%) patients had GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m at one year post-HTx and this was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.7 (P=0.01) for a GFR between 30-60 and 3.2 (P=0.006) for GFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m. GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m at 1 year post-HTx was also associated with a higher risk of cardiac mortality (HR=1.9; P=0.04) but did not predict the development of CAV. Renal impairment is evident in a majority of HTx recipients at 1 year post-HTx. It is an important risk factor for both all-cause and cardiac mortality but does not predict the development of angiographic CAV.Transplantation 07/2007; 84(2):149-54. · 3.78 Impact Factor