Pulmonary hypertension in heart transplantation: discrepant prognostic impact of pre-operative compared with 1-year post-operative right heart hemodynamics.
ABSTRACT The prognostic impact of pulmonary hypertension (PH) before and after heart transplantation (HTx) is debated. We investigated: (i) the significance of pre-operative reversible PH on post-operative survival; (ii) the value of recatheterization while on the waiting list; (iii) the evolution of right heart hemodynamics (RHH) after HTx; and (iv) the prognostic impact of PH at 1 year after HTx.
We reviewed the records of 500 HTx recipients transplanted between 1983 and 2007. Pre-operatively, a non-PH group (Group 1, n = 365) fulfilled directly our RHH criteria for HTx, while a PH group (Group 2, n = 135) was accepted after reversibility of PH by acute vasodilatory testing. Recatheterization was performed every third month while on the waiting list and repeatedly after transplantation.
With a follow-up of 6.8 +/- 5.1 years and a 50% survival rate of 12.1 +/- 5.4 years, our main findings were as follows: (i) Patients with reversible PH on vasodilatory testing had a survival rate similar to that of patients without PH (11.7 +/- 0.8 vs 12.1 +/- 0.5 years, p = 0.80). (ii) Pre-operative recatheterization was of limited value as RHH remained stable. Five percent of patients died while on the waiting list and 2 improved clinically and were removed. (iii) Mean pulmonary artery pressure (MAP) was reduced from 28 +/- 9 and 40 +/- 8 mm Hg pre-operatively to 21 +/- 7 and 24 +/- 6 mm Hg after 2 weeks and 16 +/- 7 and 18 +/- 8 mm Hg at 3 years in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. (iv) Recipients with MAP >20 mm Hg at 1 year post-HTx had significantly lower survival than those with MAP <or=20 mm Hg (11.5 +/- 0.7 vs 15.6 +/- 0.6 years, p < 0.001).
Elevated pulmonary pressure 1 year after HTx provides significant prognostic information regarding long-term outcome, whereas pre-operative reversible PH in this group does not influence survival.
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ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is considered as a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing heart transplantation. Recently, left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation has been increasingly used in reducing pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) in patients with PH unresponsive to medical therapy. Herein, we aimed to compare the efficacy of continuous-flow and pulsatile-flow blood pumps on the improvement of PH in mechanical circulatory support patients. Twenty-seven patients with end-stage heart failure who underwent LVAD implantation surgery were enrolled. Fifteen of them (55.6%) had continuous-flow pump (HeartWare Ventricular Assist System, HeartWare, Inc., Miramar, FL, USA), and 12 of them (44.4%) had pulsatile pump (Berlin Heart EXCOR ventricular assist device, Berlin Heart AG, Berlin, Germany). The efficacy of LVADs on the improvement of PH was compared between continuous-flow and pulsatile pumps by the evaluation of systolic PAP, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), right ventricular systolic motion (RVSM), right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), and grade of tricuspid insufficiency (TI) for each of the study participants. All of the 15 patients who underwent continuous-flow blood pump implantation surgery (Group 1) were male with a mean age of 46.9 ± 11.7 years, and in pulsatile-flow blood pump implanted participants (Group 2), the mean age was 40.6 ± 16.8 years, all of whom were also male (P = 0.259). Mean follow-up was 313.7 ± 241.3 days in Group 1 and 448.7 ± 120.7 days in Group 2 (P = 0.139). In Group 1, mean preoperative and postoperative systolic PAP were measured as 51.7 ± 12.2 mm Hg and 22.2 ± 3.4 mm Hg, respectively, while those in Group 2 were 54.5 ± 7.5 mm Hg and 33.9 ± 6.4 mm Hg, respectively. A significantly greater decrease in systolic PAP was noticed in patients with continuous-flow blood pumps (P = 0.023); however, no statistically significant difference was found when we considered the change in TAPSE between study groups (P = 0.112). A statistical significance in the alteration of RVEF, RVSM, and the grade of TI during study visits was not found between the study groups (P = 0.472, P = 0.887, and P = 0.237, respectively). Although the two studied types of LVADs were found to be effective in reducing PAP in heart transplantation candidates with PH, lesser postoperative systolic PAP values were achieved in patients who underwent continuous-flow pump implantation surgery.Artificial Organs 09/2013; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Unresponsive pulmonary hypertension (PH) implies poor post-transplant outcomes. Data on late adaptation of the right ventricle (RV) are still few. This study evaluated three-year RV function and remodelling, exercise capacity and haemodynamic data in a selected group of patients initially disqualified because of PH. Between May 2005 and December 2009, 31 consecutive patients were qualified for oral sildenafil because of unresponsive PH at baseline right heart catheterization (RHC). After a 12-week trial, RHC disclosed PH reversibility (mean PVR: 5.41± 3 Wood units, mean TPG 14.5±5.6 mmHg and mean systolic PAP 68.9±15.1 mmHg), allowing listing even though as high-risk procedures. All patients underwent heart transplantation. RV failure developed in three patients (9.6%) and hospital mortality was 3.2%. Protocol RHC disclosed pulmonary haemodynamic profile normalization within the third postoperative month, allowing weaning from sildenafil in the 30 hospital survivors. One- and three-year RHCs confirmed stable PH reversal (n=26, all three-year survivors). Parameters of late RV function and remodelling proved satisfactory. Parameters of functional capacity (Vo2 peak 19.7±3.6 ml/kg/min and slope VE/Vco2 34.8±2.7) proved homogeneous to those measured in transplant recipients with normal preoperative pulmonary artery pressure. Oral sildenafil is effective in allowing candidacy, safe transplantation and long-term survival in PH recipients initially disqualified. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Clinical Transplantation 05/2014; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to left heart disease may impair outcome after heart transplantation (HT). To evaluate to what extent previous, and present, haemodynamic criteria discriminate the impact of pre-operative-PH on survival, we characterized the PH in our HT-patients according to ESC's guidelines, ISHLT's summary statement and ISHLT's relative contraindications and criteria for early risk of death after HT. Design. Records from the 215 HT-patients in Lund during 1988-2010 were reviewed. Subsequent analysis included adults (n = 94) evaluated with right-heart-catheterization at our lab, at rest before HT. End of follow-up was 30th of June 2012. Results. Survival (mean, n) did not differ (p = ns) for the 94 HT-patients; without (13.0 years, n = 28) or with (13.9 years, n = 66) PH, passive (13.8 years, n = 50) or reactive (12.2 years, n = 13) post-capillary-PH, "modified" passive (13.1 years, n = 40), mixed (16.6 years, n = 23), "modified" reactive (12.6 years, n = 7) or non-reactive (12.2 years, n = 8) post-capillary-PH; or for ISHLT's relative contraindications (12.0 years, n = 22) or increased risk of right-heart-failure and early death (16.5 years, n = 23) after HT. Conclusions. As previous and present haemodynamic criteria did not sufficiently discriminate the impact of pre-operative-PH for survival after HT at our centre, larger multi-centre studies are encouraged to redefine criteria that may influence outcome.Scandinavian cardiovascular journal: SCJ 01/2014; · 1.07 Impact Factor