Pulmonary hypertension in heart transplantation: discrepant prognostic impact of pre-operative compared with 1-year post-operative right heart hemodynamics.
ABSTRACT The prognostic impact of pulmonary hypertension (PH) before and after heart transplantation (HTx) is debated. We investigated: (i) the significance of pre-operative reversible PH on post-operative survival; (ii) the value of recatheterization while on the waiting list; (iii) the evolution of right heart hemodynamics (RHH) after HTx; and (iv) the prognostic impact of PH at 1 year after HTx.
We reviewed the records of 500 HTx recipients transplanted between 1983 and 2007. Pre-operatively, a non-PH group (Group 1, n = 365) fulfilled directly our RHH criteria for HTx, while a PH group (Group 2, n = 135) was accepted after reversibility of PH by acute vasodilatory testing. Recatheterization was performed every third month while on the waiting list and repeatedly after transplantation.
With a follow-up of 6.8 +/- 5.1 years and a 50% survival rate of 12.1 +/- 5.4 years, our main findings were as follows: (i) Patients with reversible PH on vasodilatory testing had a survival rate similar to that of patients without PH (11.7 +/- 0.8 vs 12.1 +/- 0.5 years, p = 0.80). (ii) Pre-operative recatheterization was of limited value as RHH remained stable. Five percent of patients died while on the waiting list and 2 improved clinically and were removed. (iii) Mean pulmonary artery pressure (MAP) was reduced from 28 +/- 9 and 40 +/- 8 mm Hg pre-operatively to 21 +/- 7 and 24 +/- 6 mm Hg after 2 weeks and 16 +/- 7 and 18 +/- 8 mm Hg at 3 years in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. (iv) Recipients with MAP >20 mm Hg at 1 year post-HTx had significantly lower survival than those with MAP <or=20 mm Hg (11.5 +/- 0.7 vs 15.6 +/- 0.6 years, p < 0.001).
Elevated pulmonary pressure 1 year after HTx provides significant prognostic information regarding long-term outcome, whereas pre-operative reversible PH in this group does not influence survival.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives: Diastolic dysfunction is a major cause of morbidity in heart transplant recipients. A reliable, non-invasive marker of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure would simplify follow-up in these patients. We aimed to test the validity of echocardiographic indices of LV filling pressure in a contemporary population of heart transplant recipients. Design: 83 patients were examined by right-sided heart catheterisation and echocardiography one year after heart transplantation. We explored the association between echocardiographic parameters of LV filling pressure and invasively measured pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). Results: Peak early mitral flow velocity divided by septal early mitral relaxation velocity (E/e'septal) was the echocardiographic parameter that best correlated with PCWP (r = 0.47; p < 0.001). At a cut-off value of 22, E/e'septal could identify patients with a PCWP above 12 mm Hg with a sensitivity of 56 % and a specificity of 95 %. Conclusions: The E/e' index was moderately associated with LV filling pressure in heart transplant recipients. Echocardiographic parameters of diastolic function should be interpreted with caution when estimating left ventricular filling pressures in this population.Scandinavian cardiovascular journal: SCJ 11/2014; DOI:10.3109/14017431.2014.981579 · 1.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Severe pre-transplant pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been associated with adverse short-term clinical outcomes after heart transplantation in relatively small single-center studies. The impact of pre-transplant PH on long-term survival after heart transplantation has not been examined in a large, multi-center cohort. Methods Adults (≥ 18 years) who underwent first time heart transplantation in the United States between 1987 and 2012 were retrospectively identified from the United Network for Organ Sharing registry. Pre-transplant PH was classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), trans-pulmonary gradient (TPG), and pulmonary artery (PA) mean pressure. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Results Data from 26,649 heart transplant recipients (mean age 52 ± 12 years; 76% male; 76% Caucasian) were analyzed. During a mean follow-up of 5.7 ± 4.8 years, there were 10,334 (39%) deaths. Pre-transplant PH (PVR ≥ 2.5 WU) was a significant predictor of mortality (hazard ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.05–1.14, p < 0.0001) in multivariable analysis. However, the severity of pre-transplant PH (mild/moderate vs. severe) did not affect short or long-term survival. Similarly, even in patients who were supported with either a left ventricular assist device or a total artificial heart prior to transplant, severe pre-transplant PH was not associated with worse survival when compared to patients with mild/moderate pre-transplant PH. Conclusion Pre-transplant PH (PVR ≥ 2.5 WU) is associated with a modest increase in mortality when compared to patients without pre-transplant PH. However, the severity of pre-transplant PH, assessed by PVR, TPG, or mean PA pressure, is not a discriminating factor for poor survival in patients listed for heart transplantation.International Journal of Cardiology 10/2014; 176(3):595–599. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.08.072 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction. There is a tendency to favor oversized donor hearts for heart transplant candidates affected by mild to moderate pulmonary hypertension (PHTN). We hypothesize that both undersized and oversized donor hearts fare equally well in this setting. Methods. A total of 107 cases from 2003 to 2008 were retrospectively reviewed and subsequently divided into those receiving organs from undersized donors (group 1: donor weight/recipient weight <= 0.90, n = 37) and oversized donors (group 2: donor weight/ recipient weight >= 1.2, n = 70). PHTN was identified in the perioperative period in those patients with systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) >= 40 mm Hg. Endpoints of mortality and hemodynamic data were investigated. Results. Of 107 patients, 37 received undersized donor allografts, with a mean donor-to-recipient weight ratio of 0.8, and 70 received oversized donors allografts, with a mean donor-to-recipient ratio of 1.4. Perioperative PAH was diagnosed in 20 of the 37 (54%) patients from the undersized group (mean SPAP = 45.9 mm Hg) and 41 of 70 (59%) patients from the oversized group (mean SPAP = 46.5 mm Hg). There was no significant difference in right ventricular function at 1 week, 1 month, or 6 months. Left ventricular function was similar between both groups at 6 months (P = .22). The mean SPAP in the undersized group was 45.9, 33.4, 31.8, and 23.1 mm Hg at the perioperative, 1 week, 1 month, and 6 month time points, respectively. Corresponding mean SPAP for the oversized group was 46.5, 35.0, 29.4, and 26.1 mm Hg. The 1 month, 1 year, and 3 year survivals were similar in both groups. Conclusions. Oversized and undersized donor hearts fared equally well in the setting of mild to moderate perioperative PAH. This in addition to the propensity for resolution of pulmonary hypertension over time suggests that the current practice of favoring oversized donor hearts for patients with pre-transplantation PAH may be unwarranted.Transplantation Proceedings 06/2014; 46(5):1497-501. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2014.02.008 · 0.95 Impact Factor