The right parahippocampal gyrus contributes to the formation and maintenance of bound information in working memory.
ABSTRACT Working memory is devoted to the temporary storage and on-line manipulation of information. Recently, an integrative system termed the episodic buffer has been proposed to integrate and hold information being entered or retrieved from episodic memory. Although the brain system supporting such an integrative buffer is still in debate, the medial temporal lobe appears to be a promising candidate for the maintenance of bound information. In the current work, binding was assessed by comparing two conditions in which participants had to retain three letters and three spatial locations presented either bound or separate. At the behavioral level, lower performance was found for bound information than for separate information. When contrasting the two conditions, activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus was greater for the encoding and maintenance of bound information. No activation was observed in the medial temporal lobe during the retrieval of bound information. Together, our results suggest that the parahippocampal gyrus may underlie the integrative and maintenance functions of the episodic buffer.
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ABSTRACT: Background noise may impose deleterious effects on cognitive processing. However, noise below the threshold level may increase the ability to detect stimuli via stochastic resonance mechanisms (SR). The present study investigates whether task performance is deteriorated or enhanced by 5-dB SNR and, if the task performance is enhanced, whether this facilitation in performance points to a particular neural area that serves to attenuate noise and/or increase effective task performance. The areas of interest are the cerebellum and hippocampus due to their roles in working memory (WM) and their links with attention. Fifteen healthy young Malay adults performed three tasks during fMRI scanning: listening to babble noise (N), WM task in quiet (WMQ), and WM task in noise (WMN). Activated regions during N are bilateral STG and MTG. Both WM tasks produced similar activation in a network of areas in the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes. However, the two tasks demonstrated marked differences in the left hippocampus, right posterior cerebellum, and bilateral anterior cerebellum. Moreover, the results obtained from the behavioral task demonstrated that participants responded better in the presence of noise. These results support the hypothesis that the left hippocampus, right posterior cerebellum, and bilateral anterior cerebellum may be involved in attenuating noise and/or increasing attention to task performance, which could be due to SR mechanisms operating in the presence of noise. These results collectively suggest leftward asymmetries during the tasks with the right posterior cerebellum, bilateral anterior cerebellum, and left hippocampus providing compensatory attention processes, at least in the context of this study.Psychology and Neuroscience 12/2012; 5(2):247-256.
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ABSTRACT: Internet gaming addiction (IGA) is usually defined as the inability of an individual to control his/her use of the Internet with serious negative consequences. It is becoming a prevalent mental health concern around the world. To understand whether Internet gaming addiction contributes to cerebral structural changes, the present study examined the brain gray matter density and white matter density changes in participants suffering IGA using voxel-based morphometric analysis. Compared with the healthy controls (N=36, 22.2±3.13years), IGA participants (N=35, 22.28±2.54years) showed significant lower gray matter density in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, left cingulate gyrus, insula, right precuneus, and right hippocampus (all p<0.05). IGA participants also showed significant lower white matter density in the inferior frontal gyrus, insula, amygdala, and anterior cingulate than healthy controls (all p<0.05). Previous studies suggest that these brain regions are involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition and emotional regulation. Current findings might provide insight in understanding the biological underpinnings of IGA.Addictive Behaviors 09/2014; 40C:137-143. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Functional imaging studies have indicated that patients with low back pain can have significant reductions in cerebral cortex grey matter. However, the mechanisms governing the nociceptive pathways in the human brain are unclear. The aim of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) to investigate changes in resting-state brain activity in subjects that experienced experimentally induced low back pain.Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 07/2014; 11(1):115. · 2.62 Impact Factor