Defining functional SMA and pre-SMA subregions in human MFC using resting state fMRI: functional connectivity-based parcellation method.
ABSTRACT Noninvasive parcellation of the human cerebral cortex is an important goal for understanding and examining brain functions. Recently, the patterns of anatomical connections using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been used to parcellate brain regions. Here, we present a noninvasive parcellation approach that uses "functional fingerprints" obtained by correlation measures on resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to parcellate brain regions. In other terms, brain regions are parcellated based on the similarity of their connection--as reflected by correlation during resting state--to the whole brain. The proposed method was used to parcellate the medial frontal cortex (MFC) into supplementary motor areas (SMA) and pre-SMA subregions. In agreement with anatomical landmark-based parcellation, we find that functional fingerprint clustering of the MFC results in anterior and posterior clusters. The probabilistic maps from 12 subjects showed that the anterior cluster is mainly located rostral to the vertical commissure anterior (VCA) line, whereas the posterior cluster is mainly located caudal to VCA line, suggesting the homologues of pre-SMA and SMA. The functional connections from the putative pre-SMA cluster were connected to brain regions which are responsible for complex/cognitive motor control, whereas those from the putative SMA cluster were connected to brain regions which are related to the simple motor control. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of the functional connectivity-based parcellation of the human cerebral cortex using resting state fMRI.
Article: Functional connectivity in the resting brain: a network analysis of the default mode hypothesis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Functional imaging studies have shown that certain brain regions, including posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), consistently show greater activity during resting states than during cognitive tasks. This finding led to the hypothesis that these regions constitute a network supporting a default mode of brain function. In this study, we investigate three questions pertaining to this hypothesis: Does such a resting-state network exist in the human brain? Is it modulated during simple sensory processing? How is it modulated during cognitive processing? To address these questions, we defined PCC and vACC regions that showed decreased activity during a cognitive (working memory) task, then examined their functional connectivity during rest. PCC was strongly coupled with vACC and several other brain regions implicated in the default mode network. Next, we examined the functional connectivity of PCC and vACC during a visual processing task and show that the resultant connectivity maps are virtually identical to those obtained during rest. Last, we defined three lateral prefrontal regions showing increased activity during the cognitive task and examined their resting-state connectivity. We report significant inverse correlations among all three lateral prefrontal regions and PCC, suggesting a mechanism for attenuation of default mode network activity during cognitive processing. This study constitutes, to our knowledge, the first resting-state connectivity analysis of the default mode and provides the most compelling evidence to date for the existence of a cohesive default mode network. Our findings also provide insight into how this network is modulated by task demands and what functions it might subserve.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2003; 100(1):253-8. · 9.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our goal in this review is to provide an anatomical framework for the analysis of the motor functions of the medial wall of the hemisphere in humans and laboratory primates. Converging evidence indicates that this region of the frontal lobe contains multiple areas involved in motor control. In the monkey, the medial wall contains four premotor areas that project directly to both the primary motor cortex and the spinal cord. These are the supplementary motor area (SMA) on the superior frontal gyrus and three motor areas buried within the cingulate sulcus. In addition, there is evidence that a fifth motor field, the pre-SMA, lies rostral to the SMA proper. Recent physiological observations provide evidence for functional differences among these motor fields. In the human, no consensus exists on the number of distinct motor fields on the medial wall. In this review, we summarize the results of positron emission tomography (PET) studies that examined functional activation on the medial wall of humans. Our analysis suggests that it is possible to identify at least four separate cortical areas on the medial wall. Each area appears to be relatively more involved in some aspects of motor behavior than others. These cortical areas in the human appear to be analogous to the pre-SMA, the SMA proper, and two of the cingulate motor areas of the monkey. We believe that these correspondences and the anatomical framework we describe will be important for unraveling the motor functions of the medial wall of the hemisphere.Cerebral Cortex 6(3):342-53. · 6.54 Impact Factor