Cathepsin L participates in dynorphin production in brain cortex, illustrated by protease gene knockout and expression.
ABSTRACT Dynorphin opioid neuropeptides mediate neurotransmission for analgesia and behavioral functions. Dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and alpha-neoendorphin are generated from prodynorphin by proteolytic processing. This study demonstrates the significant role of the cysteine protease cathepsin L for producing dynorphins. Cathepsin L knockout mouse brains showed extensive decreases in dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and alpha-neoendorphin that were reduced by 75%, 83%, and 90%, respectively, compared to controls. Moreover, cathepsin L in brain cortical neurons was colocalized with dynorphins in secretory vesicles, the primary site of neuropeptide production. Cellular coexpression of cathepsin L with prodynorphin in PC12 cells resulted in increased production of dynorphins A and B. Comparative studies of PC1/3 and PC2 convertases showed that PC1/3 knockout mouse brains had a modest decrease in dynorphin A, and PC2 knockout mice showed a minor decrease in alpha-neoendorphin. Overall, these results demonstrate a prominent role for cathepsin L, jointly with PC1/3 and PC2, for production of dynorphins in brain.
Article: Neuropeptidomic components generated by proteomic functions in secretory vesicles for cell-cell communication.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diverse neuropeptides participate in cell-cell communication to coordinate neuronal and endocrine regulation of physiological processes in health and disease. Neuropeptides are short peptides ranging in length from ~3 to 40 amino acid residues that are involved in biological functions of pain, stress, obesity, hypertension, mental disorders, cancer, and numerous health conditions. The unique neuropeptide sequences define their specific biological actions. Significantly, this review article discusses how the neuropeptide field is at the crest of expanding knowledge gained from mass-spectrometry-based neuropeptidomic studies, combined with proteomic analyses for understanding the biosynthesis of neuropeptidomes. The ongoing expansion in neuropeptide diversity lies in the unbiased and global mass-spectrometry-based approaches for identification and quantitation of peptides. Current mass spectrometry technology allows definition of neuropeptide amino acid sequence structures, profiling of multiple neuropeptides in normal and disease conditions, and quantitative peptide measures in biomarker applications to monitor therapeutic drug efficacies. Complementary proteomic studies of neuropeptide secretory vesicles provide valuable insight into the protein processes utilized for neuropeptide production, storage, and secretion. Furthermore, ongoing research in developing new computational tools will facilitate advancements in mass-spectrometry-based identification of small peptides. Knowledge of the entire repertoire of neuropeptides that regulate physiological systems will provide novel insight into regulatory mechanisms in health, disease, and therapeutics.The AAPS Journal 12/2010; 12(4):635-45. · 5.09 Impact Factor
Article: Cysteine Cathepsins in the secretory vesicle produce active peptides: Cathepsin L generates peptide neurotransmitters and cathepsin B produces beta-amyloid of Alzheimer's disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent new findings indicate significant biological roles of cysteine cathepsin proteases in secretory vesicles for production of biologically active peptides. Notably, cathepsin L in secretory vesicles functions as a key protease for proteolytic processing of proneuropeptides (and prohormones) into active neuropeptides that are released to mediate cell-cell communication in the nervous system for neurotransmission. Moreover, cathepsin B in secretory vesicles has been recently identified as a β-secretase for production of neurotoxic β- amyloid (Aβ) peptides that accumulate in Alzheimer's disease (AD), participating as a notable factor in the severe memory loss in AD. These secretory vesicle functions of cathepsins L and B for production of biologically active peptides contrast with the well-known role of cathepsin proteases in lysosomes for the degradation of proteins to result in their inactivation. The unique secretory vesicle proteome indicates proteins of distinct functional categories that provide the intravesicular environment for support of cysteine cathepsin functions. Features of the secretory vesicle protein systems insure optimized intravesicular conditions that support the proteolytic activity of cathepsins. These new findings of recently discovered biological roles of cathepsins L and B indicate their significance in human health and disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteolysis 50 years after the discovery of lysosome.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2011; 1824(1):89-104. · 4.66 Impact Factor