Article

Swine influenza matrix 2 (M2) protein contributes to protection against infection with different H1 swine influenza virus (SIV) isolates.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.
Vaccine (Impact Factor: 3.49). 11/2009; 28(2):523-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.09.130
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A swine influenza virus (SIV) vaccine-challenge pig model was used to study the potential of a conserved matrix 2 (M2) protein vaccine alone or in combination with an inactivated H1N1-vaccine to protect against H1N1 and H1N2 viruses. The H1N1-vaccine and heterologous H1N2-challenge virus model has previously been shown to prolong fever and increase SIV-associated pneumonic lesions. The M2 vaccine in combination with the H1N1-vaccine reduced the H1N2 induced fever but not virus shedding. The M2 vaccine alone reduced respiratory signs and pneumonic lesions to levels similar to the negative control pigs following H1N2 infection. This study found that the M2 protein has potential as a vaccine for SIV-associated disease prevention. However, development of an immune response towards the major envelope HA protein was required to reduce SIV shedding.

0 Followers
 · 
175 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Influenza is an economically important respiratory disease affecting swine world-wide with potential zoonotic implications. Genetic reassortment and drift has resulted in genetically and antigenically distinct swine influenza viruses (SIVs). Consequently, prevention of SIV infection is challenging due to the increased rate of genetic change and a potential lack of cross-protection between vaccine strains and circulating novel isolates. This report describes a vaccine-heterologous challenge model in which pigs were administered an inactivated H1N2 vaccine with a human-like (δ-cluster) H1 six and three weeks before challenge with H1 homosubtypic, heterologous 2009 pandemic H1N1. At necropsy, macroscopic and microscopic pneumonia scores were significantly higher in the vaccinated and challenged (Vx/Ch) group compared to non-vaccinated and challenged (NVx/Ch) pigs. The Vx/Ch group also demonstrated enhanced clinical disease and a significantly elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine profile in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared to the NVx/Ch group. In contrast, viral shedding and replication were significantly higher in NVx/Ch pigs although all challenged pigs, including Vx/Ch pigs, were shedding virus in nasal secretions. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and serum neutralizing (SN) antibodies were detected to the priming antigen in the Vx/Ch pigs but no measurable cross-reacting HI or SN antibodies were detected to pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1). Overall, these results suggest that inactivated SIV vaccines may potentiate clinical signs, inflammation and pneumonia following challenge with divergent homosubtypic viruses that do not share cross-reacting HI or SN antibodies.
    Vaccine 02/2011; 29(15):2712-9. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.01.082 · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The gene constellation of the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 virus is a unique combination from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages, but prior to April 2009 had never before been identified in swine or other species. Although its hemagglutinin gene is related to North American H1 SIV, it is unknown if vaccines currently used in U.S. swine would cross-protect against infection with the pandemic A/H1N1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of inactivated vaccines prepared with North American swine influenza viruses as well as an experimental homologous A/H1N1 vaccine to prevent infection and disease from 2009 pandemic A/H1N1. All vaccines tested provided partial protection ranging from reduction of pneumonia lesions to significant reduction in virus replication in the lung and nose. The multivalent vaccines demonstrated partial protection; however, none was able to prevent all nasal shedding or clinical disease. An experimental homologous 2009 A/H1N1 monovalent vaccine provided optimal protection with no virus detected from nose or lung at any time point in addition to amelioration of clinical disease. Based on cross-protection demonstrated with the vaccines evaluated in this study, the U.S. swine herd likely has significant immunity to the 2009 A/H1N1 from prior vaccination or natural exposure. However, consideration should be given for development of monovalent homologous vaccines to best protect the swine population thus limiting shedding and the potential transmission of 2009 A/H1N1 from pigs to people.
    Vaccine 03/2010; 28(15):2782-7. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.01.049 · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The threat of highly virulent avian influenza, such as H5N1 and swine-origin H1N1 influenza viruses, bring out an urgent need to develop a universal influenza vaccine, which may provide cross-protection against different strain of influenza A viruses. The extra-domain of influenza M2 protein (M2e), which is almost completely conserved among all subtypes of influenza A viruses, is considered as a promising candidate target for the development of a broad-spectrum recombinant influenza A vaccine. The results of several preclinical studies with M2e protein, with or without carriers, have already proved the successful protection of M2e-based vaccinated animal model against lethal challenge of heterologous and homologous influenza A viruses. Recently, the results of Phase I/II clinical trail studies with M2e-based vaccines have raised hopes for considering these vaccines against seasonal and pandemic influenza A strains. Hence, it is expected that more and more effective and safe universal influenza vaccines based on M2e will be developed for prevention of seasonal and pandemic influenza in the near future.
    Virus Genes 11/2010; 42(1):1-8. DOI:10.1007/s11262-010-0547-7 · 1.84 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
2 Downloads
Available from