Structural study of liposomes loaded with a GM3 lactone analogue for the targeting of tumor epitopes.

Department of Chemistry and CSGI, University of Florence, 50019 Sesto, Florence, Italy.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (Impact Factor: 4.66). 10/2009; 1788(12):2518-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2009.10.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Therapeutic vaccination with tumor antigens is a new approach in cancer treatment, which aims at inducing immune response while avoiding the side effects generally associated to many conventional therapies. To improve the efficacy of vaccines, suitable carriers may be used. Herein the insertion of a thioether analogue of GM3 lactone (SNeuAC-C14) into liposomes is reported. SNeuAC-C14 is a potential vaccine for the targeting of saccharide-based tumor epitopes. Different liposome formulations were designed to act as carriers and to generate recognition by tumor epitopes. The structural study of pure and loaded liposomes was carried out by synchrotron Small Angle X-ray Scattering and was complemented by Dynamic Light Scattering and Zeta potential measurements. This provided detailed information on relevant properties of the investigated host-guest structures and showed that the active unit of SNeuAC-C14, i.e. its spiro tricyclic moiety, was located in the polar head region of the liposome bilayer, which is an important requirement for recognition phenomena. Moreover, it was found that most of the SNeuAC-C14/liposome complexes were positively charged. The obtained results allow these systems to be considered as candidates to promote immunoresponse in tumor cells.

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    ABSTRACT: Multivalent sugar-based materials have attracted attention since the functional role of carbohydrates in biology has been disclosed. The design of artificial systems that mimics the polyvalent carbohydrate organization at cell surface has been envisaged as a strategy to study and intervene in carbohydrate-mediated interactions. One of the first synthetic glycomaterials which appeared in the literature were glycoliposomes, dynamic systems that resemble the glycocalix in the phospholipidic bilayer of cell membranes. Glycoliposomes are non-covalent systems which have been used since the seventies as multivalent tools in carbohydrate-based interactions against pathogens, for enhancing immunity and as molecular carriers in drug delivery. In former years, the advent of nanotechnology has allowed the design and construction of new materials similar in size to biologically relevant molecules (proteins, nucleic acids, etc) and displaying unique physical properties. The bio-functionalization of metallic nanomaterials with carbohydrates generated a new class of glycomaterials, named glyconanoparticles, which present carbohydrates in a highly multivalent way and in high local concentrations. At the same time, the quantum size properties of metallic nanoclusters can be used for biosensing, diagnostics, and (in perspective) therapy. This review focuses on glycoliposomes and covalently-functionalized glyconanoparticles which make use of the “glyco-code” to address specifically pathogens or pathological-related problems.
    Synthesis and Biological Applications of Glycoconjugates, Edited by Olivier Renaudet and Nicolas Spinelli, 01/2011: chapter 10: pages 164-202; Bentham Science Publisher., ISBN: 978-1-60805-537-1

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