TSPAN12 Regulates Retinal Vascular Development by Promoting Norrin- but Not Wnt-Induced FZD4/β-Catenin Signaling

Tumor Biology and Angiogenesis Department, Genentech Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.
Cell (Impact Factor: 32.24). 10/2009; 139(2):299-311. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2009.07.048
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mutations in the genes encoding the Wnt receptor Frizzled-4 (FZD4), coreceptor LRP5, or the ligand Norrin disrupt retinal vascular development and cause ophthalmic diseases. Although Norrin is structurally unrelated to Wnts, it binds FZD4 and activates the canonical Wnt pathway. Here we show that the tetraspanin Tspan12 is expressed in the retinal vasculature, and loss of Tspan12 phenocopies defects seen in Fzd4, Lrp5, and Norrin mutant mice. In addition, Tspan12 genetically interacts with Norrin or Lrp5. Overexpressed TSPAN12 associates with the Norrin-receptor complex and significantly increases Norrin/beta-catenin but not Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, whereas Tspan12 siRNA abolishes transcriptional responses to Norrin but not Wnt3A in retinal endothelial cells. Signaling defects caused by Norrin or FZD4 mutations that are predicted to impair receptor multimerization are rescued by overexpression of TSPAN12. Our data indicate that Norrin multimers and TSPAN12 cooperatively promote multimerization of FZD4 and its associated proteins to elicit physiological levels of signaling.

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Available from: Jeremy B Burton, Mar 25, 2015
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    • "TSPAN12 participation in Norrin receptor complex significantly increases Norrin signaling through nuclear beta-catenin, but does not change Wnt ligand-dependent signaling17. Thus, it appears that TSPAN12 is a specific Norrin signal amplifier17. Using the sensitive double signal amplification methodology, we demonstrate that TSPAN12 protein is expressed in colorectal tumor blood vessel endothelial cells (Figure 4, row D). "
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    ABSTRACT: Norrin binds to the frizzled-4 receptor, stimulating canonical Wnt signaling. We investigate here the role of colorectal cancer (CRC) produced Norrin in endothelial cell growth, motility, and blood vessel formation, as well as the expression of the Norrin signaling pathway components in the CRC tumor microenvironment. Norrin conditioned medium produced by CRC cell line CaCO2 transfected with Norrin expression construct increased endothelial cell motility. Blocking Norrin signaling reduced endothelial cell motility, branch point number (1/mm(2)), and the network length (mm/mm(2)) during in vitro angiogenesis. Colorectal tumors express Norrin protein. Endothelial cells in the colorectal tumor microenvironment contain all of the components of the Norrin signaling pathway needed to respond to Norrin protein. This study presents data that Norrin may play a role in the regulation of angiogenesis in the colorectal cancer tumor microenvironment.
    Scientific Reports 07/2014; 4:5630. DOI:10.1038/srep05630 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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    • "Similarly, the mRNA encoding the four-time membrane spanning integral membrane protein TSPAN12 is also a target for miRNA-146a, and upregulated miRNA-146a contributes to the downregulation of TSPAN12 as is observed in AD brain and in cytokine and Aβ peptide-stressed human brain cells [8,80,81]. Just as sufficient TSPAN12 appears to be required for the neurotrophic cleavage of the βAPP, insufficient TSPAN12 is associated with the induction of amyloidogenesis [8,80,81]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abundant neurochemical, neuropathological, and genetic evidence suggests that a critical number of proinflammatory and innate immune system-associated factors are involved in the underlying pathological pathways that drive the sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) process. Most recently, a series of epigenetic factors - including a select family of inducible, proinflammatory, NF-κB-regulated small noncoding RNAs called miRNAs - have been shown to be significantly elevated in abundance in AD brain. These upregulated miRNAs appear to be instrumental in reshaping the human brain transcriptome. This reorganization of mRNA speciation and complexity in turn drives proinflammatory and pathogenic gene expression programs. The ensuing, progressively altered immune and inflammatory signaling patterns in AD brain support immunopathogenetic events and proinflammatory features of the AD phenotype. This report will briefly review what is known concerning NF-κB-inducible miRNAs that are significantly upregulated in AD-targeted anatomical regions of degenerating human brain cells and tissues. Quenching of NF-κB-sensitive inflammatory miRNA signaling using NF-κB-inhibitors such as the polyphenolic resveratrol analog trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene (CAY10512) may have some therapeutic value in reducing inflammatory neurodegeneration. Antagonism of NF-κB-inducing, and hence proinflammatory, epigenetic and environmental factors, such as the neurotrophic herpes simplex virus-1 and exposure to the potent neurotoxin aluminum, are briefly discussed. Early reports further indicate that miRNA neutralization employing anti-miRNA (antagomir) strategies may hold future promise in the clinical management of this insidious neurological disorder and expanding healthcare concern.
    Alzheimer's Research and Therapy 12/2012; 4(6):47. DOI:10.1186/alzrt150 · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    • "In the retina, Norrin is constitutively expressed in Müller cells throughout lifetime (Ye et al., 2009). Norrin specifically binds to Frizzled-4 receptors and activates the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway that is profoundly enhanced when Tspan12 is present at the Norrin/Frizzled-4 receptor complex (Junge et al., 2009; Xu et al., 2004; Ye et al., 2009). Neither Norrin-nor Frizzled-4-deficient mice develop intraretinal capillaries (Xu et al., 2004; Ye et al., 2009) and "
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    ABSTRACT: Norrin is a retinal signaling molecule which is expressed in Müller glia and binds to Frizzled-4 to activate canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Norrin is part of an essential signaling system that controls the formation of retinal capillaries during development. To evaluate neuroprotective properties of Norrin independently from its function during retinal angiogenesis, we generated transgenic mice (Rpe65-Norrin) that constitutively express Norrin in the retinal pigmented epithelium. Substantial amounts of Norrin were secreted into the outer retina, which triggered retinal Wnt/β-catenin signaling in conjunction with an increase in the expression of endothelin-2 (EDN2), endothelin receptor B (EDNRB), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Photoreceptors of Norrin-overexpressing mice were significantly less vulnerable to light-induced damage compared to their wild-type littermates. Following light damage, we observed less apoptotic death of photoreceptors and a better retinal function than in controls. The protective effects were abolished if either Wnt/β-catenin or EDN2 signaling was blocked by intravitreal injection of Dickkopf-1 or BQ788, respectively. Light-damaged retinae from transgenic mice contained higher amounts of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and pAkt than those of wild-type littermates. We conclude that constitutive overexpression of Norrin protects photoreceptors from light damage, an effect that is mediated by Wnt/β-catenin and EDN2 signaling and involves neurotrophic activities of BDNF. The findings suggest that Norrin and its associated signaling pathways have strong potentials to attenuate photoreceptor death following injury.
    Neurobiology of Disease 09/2012; 50C(1):1-12. DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2012.09.008 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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