The purpose of this work was to compare the pharmacokinetics (PK) and tissue distribution of [14C]fluasterone following intravenous (iv), subcutaneous (sc) and oral (po) administration in male Beagle dogs. The main goal of the investigation was to discover if non-oral routes would alter parameters observed in this study following the administration of [14C]fluasterone. The oral formulation had a lower bioavailability (47%) compared to the sc formulation (84%). Po and sc administration resulted in a similar t(max); however, the observed C(max) following sc dosing was less than half of that after oral dosing. The sc route had the greatest overall exposure (AUC(0-infinity)). Tissue distribution analysis 2 h post-intravenous dosing showed that connective tissue (adipose and bone), liver, and skeletal muscle accumulated relatively high levels of fluasterone. The majority of the dose was retained during the first 24 h. Elimination of [14C]fluasterone-derived radioactivity following intravenous dosing resulted in urine and feces containing 7.6% and 28%, respectively, of the total dose over the first 24 h. Elimination of [14C]fluasterone-derived radioactivity following subcutaneous dosing resulted in 4.6% in urine and 7.8% in feces of the total dose over the first 24 h. Following oral dosing, elimination resulted in 3.8% in urine and 36% in feces over the first 24h. In conclusion, the sc route of administration offers some advantages to po and iv due to the prolonged release and increased retention through 24 h.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pentamethyl-6-chromanol (PMCol), a chromanol-type compound related to vitamin E, was proposed as an anticancer agent with activity against androgen-dependent cancers. In repeat dose-toxicity studies in rats and dogs, PMCol caused hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and hematological effects. The objectives of this study were to determine the mechanisms of the observed toxicity and identify sensitive early markers of target organ injury by integrating classical toxicology, toxicogenomics, and metabolomic approaches. PMCol was administered orally to male Sprague-Dawley rats at 200 and 2000 mg/kg daily for 7 or 28 days. Changes in clinical chemistry included elevated alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, cholesterol and triglycerides-indicative of liver toxicity that was confirmed by microscopic findings (periportal hepatocellular hydropic degeneration and cytomegaly) in treated rats. Metabolomic evaluations of liver revealed time- and dose-dependent changes, including depletion of total glutathione and glutathione conjugates, decreased methionine, and increased S-adenosylhomocysteine, cysteine, and cystine. PMCol treatment also decreased cofactor levels, namely, FAD and increased NAD(P)+. Microarray analysis of liver found that differentially expressed genes were enriched in the glutathione and cytochrome P450 pathways by PMCol treatment. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of six upregulated genes and one downregulated gene confirmed the microarray results. In conclusion, the use of metabolomics and toxicogenomics demonstrates that chronic exposure to high doses of PMCol induces liver damage and dysfunction, probably due to both direct inhibition of glutathione synthesis and modification of drug metabolism pathways. Depletion of glutathione due to PMCol exposure ultimately results in a maladaptive response, increasing the consumption of hepatic dietary antioxidants and resulting in elevated reactive oxygen species levels associated with hepatocellular damage and deficits in liver function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to prepare a powdered self-emulsified (SEDDS) formulation of meloxicam and to compare its oral bioavailability against commercial Mobic(®) tablets. The SEDDS formulation was prepared by in situ salt formation of meloxicam in a blend of lipid excipients and aqueous tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane solution. The liquid SEDDS was subsequently adsorbed on silica powder and was tested for size, flow, and crystal growth. The flowability index of the powdered SEDDS was borderline acceptable. Absence of crystal growth with storage was confirmed by DSC and PXRD studies. Dissolution of meloxicam from the powdered SEDDS was >90% vs. <12% for powdered meloxicam and <80% for the commercial tablets. Stability of the powdered formulations after storage in gelatin and HPMC capsules was also evaluated to study the effect of water migration from the fill into capsule shells. Capsules softened to a different extent as a function of fill material with HPMC capsules showing greater resistance to water migration. Finally, oral bioavailability of the formulations was evaluated in beagle dogs. Powdered meloxicam SEDDS formulation showed a 1.3-fold increase in AUC vs. commercial Mobic(®) tablets. Overall, this study described a novel SEDDS formulation of meloxicam and outlined a systematic approach to adsorbing and testing the flow and stability behavior of powdered SEDDS formulations.
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 10/2012; 39(11). DOI:10.3109/03639045.2012.729594 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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