Improving the osteointegration and bone-implant interface by incorporation of bioactive particles in sol-gel coatings of stainless steel implants.
ABSTRACT In this study, we report a hybrid organic-inorganic TEOS-MTES (tetraethylorthosilicate-methyltriethoxysilane) sol-gel-made coating as a potential solution to improve the in vivo performance of AISI 316L stainless steel, which is used as permanent bone implant material. These coatings act as barriers for ion migration, promoting the bioactivity of the implant surface. The addition of SiO(2) colloidal particles to the TEOS-MTES sol (10 or 30 mol.%) leads to thicker films and also acts as a film reinforcement. Also, the addition of bioactive glass-ceramic particles is considered responsible for enhancing osseointegration. In vitro assays for bioactivity in simulated body fluid showed the presence of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals on the surface of the double coating with 10mol.% SiO(2) samples on stainless steel after 30 days of immersion. The HA crystal lattice parameters are slightly different from stoichiometric HA. In vivo implantation experiments were carried out in a rat model to observe the osteointegration of the coated implants. The coatings promote the development of newly formed bone in the periphery of the implant, in both the remodellation zone and the marrow zone. The quality of the newly formed bone was assessed for mechanical and structural integrity by nanoindentation and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. The different amount of colloidal silica present in the inner layer of the coating slightly affects the material quality of the newly formed bone but the nanoindentation results reveal that the lower amount of silica in the coating leads to mechanical properties similar to cortical bone.
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ABSTRACT: Some ceramics, such as Bioglass, sintered hydroxyapatite, and glass-ceramic A-W, spontaneously bond to living bone. They are called bioactive materials and are already clinically used as important bone substitutes. However, compared with human cortical bone, they have lower fracture toughness and higher elastic moduli. Therefore, it is desirable to develop bioactive materials with improved mechanical properties. All the bioactive materials mentioned above form a bone-like apatite layer on their surfaces in the living body, and bond to bone through this apatite layer. The formation of bone-like apatite on artificial material is induced by functional groups, such as Si-OH, Ti-OH, Zr-OH, Nb-OH, Ta-OH, -COOH, and PO(4)H(2). These groups have specific structures revealing negatively charge, and induce apatite formation via formations of an amorphous calcium compound, e.g., calcium silicate, calcium titanate, and amorphous calcium phosphate. These fundamental findings provide methods for preparing new bioactive materials with different mechanical properties. Tough bioactive materials can be prepared by the chemical treatment of metals and ceramics that have high fracture toughness, e.g., by the NaOH and heat treatments of titanium metal, titanium alloys, and tantalum metal, and by H(3)PO(4) treatment of tetragonal zirconia. Soft bioactive materials can be synthesized by the sol-gel process, in which the bioactive silica or titania is polymerized with a flexible polymer, such as polydimethylsiloxane or polytetramethyloxide, at the molecular level to form an inorganic-organic nano-hybrid. The biomimetic process has been used to deposit nano-sized bone-like apatite on fine polymer fibers, which were textured into a three-dimensional knit framework. This strategy is expected to ultimately lead to bioactive composites that have a bone-like structure and, hence, bone-like mechanical properties.Biomaterials 07/2003; 24(13):2161-75. · 7.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The bioactivity of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA)/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings was studied by soaking the coatings in simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to 8 weeks. This investigation was aimed at elucidating the biological behaviour of plasma-sprayed HA/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings by analyzing the changes in chemistry, and crystallinity of the composite coating in a body-analogous solution. Phase composition, microstructure and calcium ion concentration were analyzed before, and after immersion. The mechanical properties, such as tensile bond strength, microhardness and Young's modulus were appropriately measured. Results demonstrated that the tensile bond strength of the composite coating was significantly higher than that of pure HA coatings even after soaking in the SBF solution over an 8-weeks period. Dissolution of Ca-P phases in SBF was evident after 24h of soaking, and, a layer of carbonate-apatite covered the coating surface after 2 weeks of immersion. The mechanical properties were found to diminish with soaking duration. However, slight variation in mechanical properties was found after supersaturation of the calcium ions was attained with the precipitation of the calcium phosphate layers.Biomaterials 01/2003; 24(9):1603-1611. · 7.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hydroxyapatites containing sodium and carbonate are prepared according to a double decomposition method. Two samples have been investigated by IR absorption spectroscopy and X-ray powder pattern fitting methods. Results confirm that both compounds pertain to the apatite family crystallising in a hexagonal system, space group P63/m. The cell parameters of the lower carbonate content apatite are a=9.3892(4) and c=6.9019(3) Å, while those of the higher one are a=9.3249(1) and c=6.9213(1) Å. Occupancy factors show that sodium is localised mainly in a 6h cationic site. Furthermore, carbonate ions occupy phosphate sites leading to a B-type carbonate apatite. These simultaneous substitutions affect the OH− position in the channel, as well as the metaloxygen interatomic distances. The substitution mechanism can be described using two of the six known elementary mechanisms.Solid State Sciences. 01/2000;