Segmented Helical Structure of the Neck Region of the Glycan-Binding Receptor DC-SIGNR

Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
Journal of Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 4.33). 10/2009; 394(4):613-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2009.10.006
Source: PubMed


Carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) in the glycan-binding receptors DC-SIGN (dendritic-cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 1-grabbing nonintegrin; CD209) and DC-SIGNR (DC-SIGN-related receptor, also known as L-SIGN and variously designated CD209L and CD299) are projected from the membrane surface by extended neck domains containing multiple repeats of a largely conserved 23-amino-acid sequence motif. Crystals of a fragment of the neck domain of DC-SIGNR containing multiple repeats in which each molecule extends through multiple unit cells, such that the observed crystallographic asymmetric unit represents one repeat averaged over six repeats of the protein, have been obtained. The repeats are largely alpha-helical. Based on the structure and arrangement of the repeats in the crystal, the neck region can be described as a series of four-helix bundles connected by short, non-helical linkers. Combining the structure of the isolated neck domain with a previously determined overlapping structure of the distal end of the neck region with the CRDs attached provides a model of the almost-complete extracellular portion of the receptor. The results are consistent with previous characterization of the extended structure for the isolated neck region and the extracellular domain. The organization of the neck suggests how CRDs may be disposed differently in DC-SIGN compared with DC-SIGNR and in variant forms of DC-SIGNR assembled from polypeptides with different numbers of repeats in the neck domain.

3 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The dendritic cell receptor DC-SIGN mediates pathogen recognition by binding to glycans characteristic of pathogen surfaces, including those found on HIV. Clustering of carbohydrate-binding sites in the receptor tetramer is believed to be critical for targeting of pathogen glycans, but the arrangement of these sites remains poorly understood. Surface force measurements between apposed lipid bilayers displaying the extracellular domain of DC-SIGN and a neoglycolipid bearing an oligosaccharide ligand provide evidence that the receptor is in an extended conformation and that glycan docking is associated with a conformational change that repositions the carbohydrate-recognition domains during ligand binding. The results further show that the lateral mobility of membrane-bound ligands enhances the engagement of multiple carbohydrate-recognition domains in the receptor oligomer with appropriately spaced ligands. These studies highlight differences between pathogen targeting by DC-SIGN and receptors in which binding sites at fixed spacing bind to simple molecular patterns.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2009; 106(28):11524-9. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0901783106 · 9.67 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Engineered receptor fragments and glycoprotein ligands employed in different assay formats have been used to dissect the basis for the dramatic enhancement of binding of two model membrane receptors, dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) and the macrophage galactose lectin, to glycoprotein ligands compared to simple sugars. These approaches make it possible to quantify the importance of two major factors that combine to enhance the affinity of single carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) for glycoprotein ligands by 100-to 300-fold. First, the presence of extended binding sites within a single CRD can enhance interaction with branched glycans, resulting in increases of fivefold to 20-fold in affinity. Second, presentation of glycans on a glycoprotein surface increases affinity by 15-to 20-fold, possibly due to low-specificity interactions with the surface of the protein or restriction in the conformation of the glycans. In contrast, when solution-phase networking is avoided, enhancement due to binding of multiple branches of a glycan to multiple CRDs in the oligomeric forms of these receptors is minimal and binding of a receptor oligomer to multiple glycans on a single glycoprotein makes only a twofold contribution to overall affinity. Thus, in these cases, multivalent interactions of individual glycoproteins with individual receptor oligomers have a limited role in achieving high affinity. These findings, combined with considerations of membrane receptor geometry, are consistent with the idea that further enhancement of the binding to multivalent glycoprotein ligands requires interaction of multiple receptor oligomers with the ligands.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 12/2009; 396(3):685-96. DOI:10.1016/j.jmb.2009.11.073 · 4.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases represent a significant health burden, especially in Western societies. For the majority of these diseases, no cure exists. Recently, research on parasitic worms (helminths) has demonstrated great potential for whole worms, their eggs or their excretory/secretory proteins in down-regulating inflammatory responses both in vitro and in vivo, in various disease models and, in some cases, even in clinical trials. The worms are thought to induce Th2 and regulatory T cells, interfere with Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and to down-regulate Th17 and Th1 responses. The molecular mechanisms underlying the worms' ability to modulate the host immune response are not well understood, and many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed immune modulation. Increasing evidence suggests that carbohydrate structures (glycans), for example, phosphorylcholine-modified glycans or Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc- (Lewis X, Le(X)) containing glycans, expressed by the worms contribute to these modulating properties by their interaction with antigen presenting cells. Helminths express a broad variety of protein- and lipid-linked glycans on their surface and on secretory products. These glycans differ in amount and composition and several of these structures are species specific. However, worms also express glycan antigens that are found in a wide variety of different species. Some of these "common" worm glycans are particularly interesting with regard to regulating host responses, because they have the potential to interact with C-type lectins on dendritic cells and thereby may interfere with T-cell polarization. Helminths and helminth-derived molecules form a novel and promising group of therapeutics for autoinflammatory diseases. However, much has to be learned about the molecular mechanisms behind the helminth-mediated antiinflammatory properties. This review will describe some of the emerging evidence in selected disease areas as well as discuss the putative role of glycans in helminth-mediated immunosuppression.
    International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life 04/2010; 62(4):303-12. DOI:10.1002/iub.304 · 3.14 Impact Factor
Show more

Preview (2 Sources)

3 Reads
Available from