Effect of dehydrated storage on the survival of Francisella tularensis in infant formula
ABSTRACT Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause gastrointestinal or oropharyngeal tularemia in humans from ingestion of contaminated food or water. Despite the potential for accidental or intentional contamination of foods with F. tularensis, there are few studies on the long-term survivability of this organism in food matrices. Infant formula has previously been implicated as a vehicle for the transmission of a variety of bacterial pathogens in infants. In this study, we investigated the survival of F. tularensis in dehydrated infant formula under various storage conditions. F. tularensis was stored for up to 12 weeks in dehydrated infant formula in an ambient air, dry or nitrogen atmosphere. Viable counts of fresh F. tularensis at 12 weeks in infant formula revealed a 4.15, 3.37 and 3.72-log decrease in ambient air, dry and nitrogen atmosphere, respectively. D-values were calculated (in weeks) as 3.99, 4.68 and 4.47 in air, dry and nitrogen atmosphere, respectively.
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ABSTRACT: Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (F. tularensis LVS), a promising vaccine candidate for protection against F. tularensis exposure, is a particularly thermolabile vaccine and difficult to stabilize sufficiently for storage under refrigerated conditions. Our preliminary data show that F. tularensis LVS can be stabilized in the dried state using foam drying, a modified freeze drying method, with sugar-based formulations. The process was conducted under mild drying conditions, which resulted in a good titer retention following processing. The inclusion of osmolytes in the growth media resulted in an acceleration of growth kinetics, although no change in osmotolerance was observed. The optimized F. tularensis formulation, which contained trehalose, gelatin, and Pluronic F68 demonstrated stability for approximately 1.5 weeks at 37°C (i.e., time required for the vaccine to decrease in potency by 1 log(10) colony forming unit) and for 12 weeks at 25°C. At refrigerator storage condition (4°C), stabilized F. tularensis LVS vaccine exhibited no activity loss for at least 12 weeks. This stabilization method utilizes conventional freeze dryers and pharmaceutically approved stabilizers, and thus can be readily implemented at many manufacturing sites for large-scale production of stabilized vaccines. The improved heat stability of the F. tularensis LVS could mitigate risks of vaccine potency loss during long-term storage, shipping, and distribution.Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 08/2011; 100(8):3076-87. DOI:10.1002/jps.22563 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Powdered infant formula has previously been linked to the transmission of various bacterial pathogens in infants resulting in life-threatening disease and death. Survival studies of 2 common foodborne pathogens, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Shigella dysenteriae, in powdered infant formula have not been previously studied despite the potentially devastating consequences from ingestion of these organisms, particularly by newborns, in case of a natural or deliberate contamination event. Therefore, to better predict the risk of S. Typhi and S. dysenteriae infection from consumption of infant formula, the present study was undertaken to determine survival of these microorganisms in dry infant formula under varying atmospheric conditions. A 2-strain cocktail of S. Typhi and a 3-strain cocktail of S. dysenteriae were stored for up to 12 wk in dehydrated infant formula in an ambient air or nitrogen atmosphere. Viable counts of S. Typhi at 12 wk in infant formula revealed a 2.9- and 1.69-log decrease in ambient air and nitrogen atmosphere, respectively. Viable counts of S. dysenteriae at 12 wk in infant formula revealed a 0.81- and 0.42-log decrease in ambient air and nitrogen atmosphere, respectively. These results show that S. Typhi and S. dysenteriae can remain viable for prolonged periods of time in powdered infant formula, and the presence of nitrogen enhances survival. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Our goal in this work was to study the survival of S. Typhi and S. dysenteriae in dehydrated storage conditions in infant formula. This interest is partially generated by the possibility of using these 2 microorganisms to deliberately contaminate the food supply. The outcome of this study will help us to have a better idea how to respond and react to the risk of deliberate food contamination.Journal of Food Science 08/2011; 76(6):M324-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02268.x · 1.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Drying is a commonly used technique for improving the product stability of biotherapeutics. Typically, drying is accomplished through freeze-drying, as evidenced by the availability of several lyophilized products on the market. There are, however, a number of drawbacks to lyophilization, including the lengthy process time required for drying, low energy efficiency, high cost of purchasing and maintaining the equipment, and sensitivity of the product to freezing and various other processing-related stresses. These limitations have led to the search for next-generation drying methods that can be applied to biotherapeutics. Several alternative drying methods are reviewed herein, with particular emphasis on methods that are commonly employed outside of the biopharmaceutical industry including spray drying, convective drying, vacuum drying, microwave drying, and combinations thereof. Although some of the technologies have already been implemented for processing biotherapeutics, others are still at an early stage of feasibility assessment. An overview of each method is presented, detailing the comparison to lyophilization, examining the advantages and disadvantages of each technology, and evaluating the potential of each to be utilized for drying biotherapeutic products. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci.Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 09/2014; 103(9). DOI:10.1002/jps.23998 · 3.01 Impact Factor