Interleukin-19 protects mice from innate-mediated colonic inflammation.
ABSTRACT Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from the chronic dysregulation of the mucosal immune system and the aberrant activation of both the innate and the adaptive immune responses. We used two complementary models of colonic inflammation to examine the roles of interleukin (IL)-19 in colonic inflammation and thus its possible role in IBD.
Using gene-targeting, we generated IL-19-deficient mice. To study the activation of the innate immune response during colonic inflammation we characterized an innate immune-mediated model of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). DSS can induce not only acute colitis but also chronic colitis. In addition to the acute DSS-induced colitis model, we used a chronic DSS-induced colitis model that is associated with the activation of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines as well as innate immune response in the colon.
We show that IL-19-deficient mice are more susceptible to experimental acute colitis induced by DSS, and this increased susceptibility is correlated with the accumulation of macrophages and the increased production of IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-alpha, and KC. Additionally, cytokine production in IL-19-deficient macrophages was enhanced on stimulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through reduced phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3. Moreover, our results clearly demonstrate that IL-19 is required for B-cell infiltration during chronic DSS-induced colitis, which may be mediated by IL-13 and IL-6.
The finding that IL-19 drives pathogenic innate immune responses in the colon suggests that the selective targeting of IL-19 may be an effective therapeutic approach in the treatment of human IBD.
Article: Interleukin-19: a constituent of the regulome that controls antigen presenting cells in the lungs and airway responses to microbial products.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-19 has been reported to enhance chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma but the in vivo mechanism is incompletely understood. Because IL-19 is produced by and regulates cells of the monocyte lineage, our studies focused on in vivo responses of CD11c positive (CD11c+) alveolar macrophages and lung dendritic cells. IL-19-deficient (IL-19-/-) mice were studied at baseline (naïve) and following intranasal challenge with microbial products, or recombinant cytokines. Naïve IL-19-/- mixed background mice had a decreased percentage of CD11c+ cells in the bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) due to the deficiency in IL-19 and a trait inherited from the 129-mouse strain. BAL CD11c+ cells from fully backcrossed IL-19-/- BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice expressed significantly less Major Histocompatibility Complex class II (MHCII) in response to intranasal administration of lipopolysaccharide, Aspergillus antigen, or IL-13, a pro-allergic cytokine. Neurogenic-locus-notch-homolog-protein-2 (Notch2) expression by lung monocytes, the precursors of BAL CD11c+ cells, was dysregulated: extracellular Notch2 was significantly decreased, transmembrane/intracellular Notch2 was significantly increased in IL-19-/- mice relative to wild type. Instillation of recombinant IL-19 increased extracellular Notch2 expression and dendritic cells cultured from bone marrow cells in the presence of IL-19 showed upregulated extracellular Notch2. The CD205 positive subset among the CD11c+ cells was 3-5-fold decreased in the airways and lungs of naïve IL-19-/- mice relative to wild type. Airway inflammation and histological changes in the lungs were ameliorated in IL-19-/- mice challenged with Aspergillus antigen that induces T lymphocyte-dependent allergic inflammation but not in IL-19-/- mice challenged with lipopolysaccharide or IL-13. Because MHCII is the molecular platform that displays peptides to T lymphocytes and Notch2 determines cell fate decisions, our studies suggest that endogenous IL-19 is a constituent of the regulome that controls both processes in vivo.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(11):e27629. · 4.09 Impact Factor