Intracranial Venous Thrombosis After Placement of a Lumbar Drain
ABSTRACT Lumbar drains are frequently used in clinical neuroscience and are often managed in the neurointensive care unit. Complications are generally rare, and intracranial venous thrombosis (IVT) and infarction has not been reported.
We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who developed a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak after spinal surgery. Fifteen hours after placement of a lumbar drain she developed pure alexia and color agnosia caused by left lateral sinus thrombosis with hemorrhagic infarction in the posterior inferior left temporal lobe. We review the literature on the association of IVT with injury to the spinal dura, and we propose a mechanism whereby the lumbar drain may facilitate its development.
We found 29 cases in which spinal dural injury was followed by IVT. The association is not coincidental, because nearly all cases were associated with post-dural puncture headache, which occurs in only a minority of cases of dural puncture. Injury to the spinal dura alters the distribution of craniospinal elasticity causing profound intracranial CSF hypotension on assuming the erect posture. This causes acute dilation of cerebral veins resulting in both orthostatic headache and venous stasis. We propose that placement of the lumbar drain and elevation of the head of the bed aggravated intracranial CSF hypotension and facilitated IVT.
When a lumbar drain is placed for treatment of a spinal CSF leak, the patient should remain flat in bed. Any patient with post-dural injury headache that intensifies after an initial plateau, persists for longer than a week, or loses its orthostatic character should be evaluated for intracranial sinus or venous thrombosis.
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ABSTRACT: To provide new insights into the pathophysiology, prevention and diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) associated with iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks and/or external CSF drainage. Case report and literature review. We describe the case of a 30-year-old woman who developed a CSF fistula after lumbar spinal surgery. The treatment included rest, hydration, caffeine, and continuous lumbar CSF drainage. After closure of the fistula, the patient complained of severe orthostatic headache. Thrombosis involving the superior sagittal sinus, the right transverse sinus, the right sigmoid sinus, and the right jugular vein was diagnosed after neurological deterioration. A few reports have associated CVT with various forms of spinal meningeal injury. However, it has been rarely documented following spinal surgery complicated by accidental durotomy and/or external lumbar CSF drainage. CSF hypovolemia may precipitate CVT in patients having prothrombotic risk factors. Patients who have or had CSF leaks and/or lumbar CSF drains who present with symptoms of intracranial CSF hypotension should remain in the horizontal position to prevent CVT. In that context, the diagnosis of CVT depends on a high degree of suspicion.European Spine Journal 12/2013; 23(S2). DOI:10.1007/s00586-013-3147-0 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The spectrum of presentation of intracranial hypotension is clinically perplexing. We report a case of 31-year-old post-partum woman who underwent an uneventful caesarean section under spinal anesthesia. From the second day of surgery she developed postural headache, the headache lost its postural character after few days. She then developed seizures and ataxic hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed features of severe intracranial hypotension in the brain and the spinal cord, and magnetic resonance venography showed cortical vein and partial superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Prothrombotic (etiological) work-up showed Protein C and S deficiency. She responded to anticoagulation therapy and recovered completely. On review of literature two distinct groups could be identified obstetric and non-obstetric. The non-obstetric group included patients who underwent diagnostic lumbar puncture, intrathecal injection of medications and epidural anesthesia for non-obstetric surgeries. Poor outcome and mortality was noted in non-obstetric group, while obstetric group had an excellent recovery.01/2014; 3:41. DOI:10.12688/f1000research.3-41.v1
Neurologia (Barcelona, Spain) 06/2014; 29(5):315–316. DOI:10.1016/j.nrl.2012.11.003 · 1.35 Impact Factor