Applications of chitin- and chitosan-derivatives for the detoxification of water and wastewater—a short review. Adv Colloid Interf Sci

Laboratory of Applied Environmental Chemistry, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kuopio, FI-50100 Mikkeli, Finland.
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science (Impact Factor: 7.78). 11/2009; 152(1-2):26-38. DOI: 10.1016/j.cis.2009.09.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Chitin and chitosan-derivatives have gained wide attention as effective biosorbents due to low cost and high contents of amino and hydroxyl functional groups which show significant adsorption potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. In this review, an extensive list of chitin- and chitosan-derivatives from vast literature has been compiled and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants as available in the literature are presented. This paper will give an overview of the principal results obtained during the treatment of water and wastewater utilizing chitin and chitosan-derivatives for the removal of: (a) metal cations and metal anions; (b) radionuclides; (c) different classes of dyes; (d) phenol and substituted phenols; (e) different anions and other miscellaneous pollutants. The review provides a summary of recent information obtained using batch studies and deals with the various adsorption mechanisms involved. It is evident from the literature survey that chitin- and chitosan-derivatives have shown good potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. However, still there is a need to find out the practical utility of such developed adsorbents on commercial scale.

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Available from: Mika Sillanpää, Sep 27, 2015
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    • "Natural chitosan has been modified by a number of techniques to improve SOPs adsorption capacity as well as application potential in water treatment. Different kinds and shapes of chitosan such as magnetite-immobilized chitin, beads of chitosan–sodium alginate , functional chitosan, membranes, microspheres, gel beads and films were prepared and examined for eliminating various contaminants from the aquatic environment (Bhatnagar and Sillanpää, 2009). After modification, surface area and morphology of chitosan has become much more favorable for SOPs abatement. "
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    ABSTRACT: Specific organic pollutants (SOPs) such as phenolic compounds, PAHs, organic pesticides, and organic herbicides cause health and environmental problems due to their excessive toxic properties and poor biodegradability. Low-cost biosorbents are considered as a promising alternative for conventional adsorbents to remove SOPs from water. These materials have several advantages such as high sorption capacities, good modifiability and recoverability, insensitivity to toxic substances, simple operation in the treatment processes. However, previous reports on various types of biosorbents for removing SOPs are still moderately fragmented. Hence, this paper provides a comprehensive review on using typical low-cost biosorbents obtained from lignocellulose and chitin/chitosan for SOPs adsorption. Especially, their characteristics, biosorption mechanism together with utilization for eliminating SOPs are presented and discussed. The paper also gives a critical view regarding future applications of low-cost biosorbents in SOPs-contaminated water treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Bioresource Technology 02/2015; 182. DOI:10.1016/j.biortech.2015.02.003 · 4.49 Impact Factor
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    • "The specific applications for chitosan are focused in the areas of biotechnology, biomedical research, pharmaceutical research, drug delivery methods, dietetic research, agriculture, residual waters, and the cosmetic, textile and food industry [44,49,50,52–54]. Chitosan has increasingly been studied for the adsorption of organic, inorganic, dyes and anions compounds, such as amoxillin [52], fluoride [40], perchlorate [55], chromium [39] [50], copper(II) [38] [39] [56] [57], cadmium(II) [38] [56], cobalt(II) [38], lead(II) [56], arsenic [39] [43], nitrate [58], molybdate [31], mercury [46], tungsten [33], and others [42] [45] from diluted solutions or wastewater due to its functional groups (−NH 2 and –OH). "
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    ABSTRACT: Vanadium is included in the USEPA Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). Protonated chitosan flakes (PCF) were shown to effectively remove vanadium(III, IV, and V) oxyanions from aqueous solutions at high yields. It was also proven that the adsorption capacity of vanadium increases when using PCF instead of chitosan beads (CB). A 99–100% removal of vanadium oxyanions was achieved during the first 2 h of contact when using 5 g/L PCF adsorbent and the initial vanadium concentration of 0.500 mg/L, while CB only removed 4–18%. Adsorption experiments were performed by varying contact time, pH of the aqueous solution and adsorbent suspension solution, and analyzing the effect of common anions. Vanadium(III, IV and V) adsorption is favored in the Langmuir's model. These species of vanadium were removed efficiently without the need of pretreatment process, even when common anions were added, such as chloride, carbonate, sulfate and phosphate. The proposed mechanism for the removal of vanadium, when adding PCF, is by the process of electrostatic attraction.
    Microchemical Journal 01/2015; 118:1–11. DOI:10.1016/j.microc.2014.07.011 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    • "But these methods have certain disadvantages and none of them is able to completely remove NOM from raw water. Due to water quality problems and stricter regulations for drinking water quality, more efficient, yet economically feasible, water purification technologies are needed [26] [27] [28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatability of synthetically prepared humic acid solution by electrocoagulation (EC) process in batch mode using aluminum and iron electrodes. The effect of the main parameters pH, current density, and electrode type on natural organic matter (NOM) removal was investigated. Also, in order to understand the mechanism of floc formation and growth in electrocoagulation process, zeta potential and particle size measurements were done. The larger flocs and zeta potentials which closed to zero were observed at initial pH (pH(i)) 4 rather than pH(i) 5 and 6 for Al electrode. When zeta potential exhibited charge reversal, floc size reached to 5221 nm for pH; 4 at the current density of 1.2 mA/cm(2). The zeta potential remained negative over the whole pH range for Fe electrode. At pH(i) 4 and current density of 3 mA/cm(2), zeta potential value was -4.1 mV that indicate strong coagulation-flocculation. At these conditions, the maximum floc formation was 3042.3 nm. It can be concluded that, the removal of pollutant is due to charge neutralization and compression of double layer at lower initial pH value and sweeping and entrapment at higher pH. The removal efficiency of EC method was determined with respect to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and UV/VIS absorbance at 254 and 436 nm reduction. Twenty-five minutes of process time with the aluminum electrode led to DOC removal of 87.5% with final DOC concentration of 2.01 mg/L and 91.1% UV-abs-254 removal was achieved after 2 min at pH(i) 4 and at current density of 1.2 mA/cm(2). The highest treatment efficiency for humic acid (HA) was 87% (DOCtreated 2.1 mg/L) at pH(i) 4 with iron electrodes. The short term best color removal (VIS absorbance at 436 nm) reduction performance was obtained with aluminum electrodes.
    Separation and Purification Technology 09/2014; 133:246-253. DOI:10.1016/j.seppur.2014.07.003 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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