Simultaneous enrichment of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and O26 and Salmonella in food samples using universal preenrichment broth.
ABSTRACT Universal preenrichment broth (UPB) was compared with modified Escherichia coli broth with novobiocin (mEC+n) for enrichment of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157 and O26, and with buffered peptone water (BPW) for preenrichment of Salmonella enterica. Ten strains each of the three pathogens were inoculated into beef and radish sprouts following thermal, freezing, or no treatment. With regard to O157 and O26, UPB incubated at 42 degrees C recovered significantly more cells from inoculated beef than UPB at 35 degrees C and from radish sprout samples than UPB at 35 degrees C and mEC+n. With regard to Salmonella, UPB incubated at 42 degrees C was as effective as UPB at 35 degrees C and BPW at recovering cells from beef and radish sprout samples. No significant difference was noted between the effectiveness of UPB at 42 degrees C and UPB at 35 degrees C or BPW in the recovery of Salmonella from 205 naturally contaminated poultry samples. By using UPB at 42 degrees C, one O157:H7 strain was isolated from the mixed offal of 53 beef samples, 6 cattle offal samples, and 50 pork samples all contaminated naturally, with no pathogen inoculation. The present study found that UPB incubated at 42 degrees C was as effective as, or better than, mEC+n for enrichment of O157 and O26 and comparable to BPW for preenrichment of Salmonella. These findings suggest that a great deal of labor, time, samples, and space may be saved if O157, O26, and Salmonella are enriched simultaneously with UPB at 42 degrees C.
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ABSTRACT: In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010–2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS) followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6%) dog and 5 (4.9%) coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2%) dog and 33 (32%) coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2%) of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1%) of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the produce production area. Copyright: ß 2014 Jay-Russell et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: Funding for this project was provided by the Center for Produce Safety (http:) grant #2010-34608-20768 (SA7670). Additionally, JV Farms is a Center for Produce Safety contributor (https://cps.ucdavis.edu/campaign_contributors.php). Except JV Farms, the funders had no role in study design or data collection. JV Farms food safety staff assisted in enrolling local animal shelters and collecting fecal samples for shipment to the authors. All funders had no role in the analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.PLoS ONE 11/2014; · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We compared the efficiency of universal pre-enrichment broth (UPB), modified Escherichia coli broth containing novobiocin (mEC + n), modified Tryptic Soy Broth (mTSB) and mTSB with novobiocin (mTSB + n) for the enrichment of non-O157 Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Freeze-injured and control non-O157 STEC (O91, O103, O111, O119, O121, O145 and O165) strains were used to artificially contaminate beef and radish sprout samples, which were then cultivated in each of the four enrichment media. After incubation, STEC strains were detected by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and plating assays. Enrichment in mEC + n was least effective for facilitating the detection of uninjured STEC strains in radish sprouts, while mTSB + n was least effective for enriching freeze-injured non-O157 STEC strains from beef samples for detection by LAMP assay. UPB and mTSB were superior to mEC + n and mTSB + n for the enrichment of non-O157 STEC from food samples. The enrichment of non-O157 STEC was negatively affected by the addition of novobiocin to enrichment broths. Novobiocin should not be added to media used for the enrichment of non-O157 STEC in food when cell injury is anticipated.Letters in Applied Microbiology 05/2011; 53(2):167-73. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent epidemiological data suggest a link between the consumption of bovine offal products and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection in Japan. This study thus examined the prevalence of STEC in various types of these foods. PCR screened 229 bovine offal products for the presence of Shiga toxin (stx) gene. Thirty-eight (16·6%) samples were stx positive, of which eight were positive for rfbE(O157) and three were positive for wzy(O26). Four O157 and one O26 STEC isolates were finally obtained from small-intestine and omasum products. Notably, homogenates of bovine intestinal products significantly reduced the extent of growth of O157 in the enrichment process compared to homogenates of beef carcass. As co-incubation of O157 with background microbiota complex from bovine intestinal products in buffered peptone water, in the absence of meat samples, tended to reduce the extent of growth of O157, we reasoned that certain microbiota present in offal products played a role. In support of this, inoculation of generic E. coli from bovine intestinal products into the homogenates significantly reduced the extent of growth of O157 in the homogenates of bovine intestinal and loin-beef products, and this effect was markedly increased when these homogenates were heat-treated prior to inoculation. Together, this report provides first evidence of the prevalence of STEC in a variety of bovine offal products in Japan. The prevalence data herein may be useful for risk assessment of those products as a potential source of human STEC infection beyond the epidemiological background. The growth characteristic of STEC O157 in offal products also indicates the importance of being aware when to test these food products.Epidemiology and Infection 06/2011; 140(4):655-64. · 2.87 Impact Factor