Genotyping analyses of tuberculosis transmission among immigrant residents in Italy.

Clinical Science Department, Section of Infectious Diseases, L. Sacco Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection (Impact Factor: 4.58). 10/2009; 16(8):1149-54. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.03080.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We used DNA fingerprinting to analyse tuberculosis (TB) epidemiology in immigrant patients living in two major northern Italian urban areas. The study population included 1999 TB patients (1500 Italian-born and 499 immigrants). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors related to clustering similar proportions of immigrant and Italian-born patients (46%) had infection with TB strains that belonged to genetic clusters. This supports the hypothesis that the disease in foreign patients is more likely to have arisen from reactivation of latent infection acquired in the country of origin than from recent transmission. Gender, age, human immunodeficiency virus infection and drug resistance were not significantly linked to TB clustering. Risk factors associated with strain clustering were country of origin (Somalia, adjusted OR (AOR) 3.19, p 0.017; Peru, AOR 2.86, p 0.014; and Senegal, AOR 2.60, p 0.045) and city of residence. Immigrant status in the larger urban area was an independent risk factor for infection with clustered TB, as reinforced by a subanalysis of the Senegalese group. In conclusion, variations in TB transmission were observed among immigrants from different countries and even within national groups, where living conditions have been found to exert a profound impact. These results emphasize the importance of improving social integration of immigrant subjects in order to limit risks of TB transmission in developed countries.

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    ABSTRACT: About 95% of cases and 98% of deaths due to tuberculosis (TB) occur in tropical countries while, in temperate low incidence countries, a disproportionate portion of TB cases is diagnosed in immigrants. Urbanization, poverty, poor housing conditions and ventilation, poor nutritional status, low education level, the HIV co-epidemic, the growing impact of chronic conditions such as diabetes are the main determinants of the current TB epidemiology in tropical areas. TB care in these contests is complicated by several barriers such as geographical accessibility, educational, cultural, sociopsychological and gender issues. High quality microbiological and radiological facilities are not widely available, and erratic supply of anti-TB drugs may affect tropical areas from time to time. Nevertheless in recent years, TB control programs reached major achievements in tropical countries as demonstrated by several indicators. Migrants have a high risk of acquire TB before migration. Moreover, after migration, they are exposed to additional risk factors for acquiring or reactivating TB infection, such as poverty, stressful living conditions, social inequalities, overcrowded housing, malnutrition, substance abuse, and limited access to health care. TB mass screening programs for migrants have been implemented in low endemic countries but present several limitations. Screening programs should not represent a stand-alone intervention, but a component of a wider approach integrated with other healthcare activities to ensure the health of migrants.
    Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases 01/2014; 6(1):e2014043.
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    ABSTRACT: In Italy, TB notifications in foreign-born people (FBP) are steadily increasing. To investigate this issue we did a meta-analysis on risk factors for FBP people. A systematic search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE from Jan-1980 to Jan-2013. We analysed HIV status, previous TB-treatment, intravenous drug use and alcohol abuse, and multidrug resistant TB. Odd ratio was used as a measure of effect. One and two-stages approaches were used. In the main analysis we used a 2-stages approach to include studies with only aggregate estimates. Among 1996 references, 18 fulfilled inclusion criteria. In TB-affected FBP people positive HIV-status was about 3 times higher than among Italians, after 1996 when combined antiretroviral therapy for HIV was introduced (OR: 2.91; 95%CI: 1.37; 6.17). No association was found between FBP and intravenous drug users in adults; after 1-stage meta-analysis foreign born people from highly endemic countries had a 4 times higher risk to be multidrug resistant TB than Italian people. Finally, TB-affected FBP were less likely than Italians to be alcoholics (OR: 0.10 95%CI: 0.01; 0.84) or of having received previous TB-treatment (OR: 0.55; 95%CI: 0.43; 0.71). An association of multidrug resistant TB with immigrant status as well as an association of Tuberculosis with HIV-positive status in foreign-born people are major findings of this analysis. Drugs and alcohol abuse do not appear to be risk factors for TB in FBP, however they cannot be discharged since may depend on cultural traditions and their role may change in the future along with the migratory waves. An effective control of TB risk factors among migrants is crucial to obtain the goal of TB eradication.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e94728. · 3.53 Impact Factor

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