Article

Genotyping analyses of tuberculosis transmission among immigrant residents in Italy.

Clinical Science Department, Section of Infectious Diseases, L. Sacco Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection (Impact Factor: 4.58). 10/2009; 16(8):1149-54. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.03080.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We used DNA fingerprinting to analyse tuberculosis (TB) epidemiology in immigrant patients living in two major northern Italian urban areas. The study population included 1999 TB patients (1500 Italian-born and 499 immigrants). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors related to clustering similar proportions of immigrant and Italian-born patients (46%) had infection with TB strains that belonged to genetic clusters. This supports the hypothesis that the disease in foreign patients is more likely to have arisen from reactivation of latent infection acquired in the country of origin than from recent transmission. Gender, age, human immunodeficiency virus infection and drug resistance were not significantly linked to TB clustering. Risk factors associated with strain clustering were country of origin (Somalia, adjusted OR (AOR) 3.19, p 0.017; Peru, AOR 2.86, p 0.014; and Senegal, AOR 2.60, p 0.045) and city of residence. Immigrant status in the larger urban area was an independent risk factor for infection with clustered TB, as reinforced by a subanalysis of the Senegalese group. In conclusion, variations in TB transmission were observed among immigrants from different countries and even within national groups, where living conditions have been found to exert a profound impact. These results emphasize the importance of improving social integration of immigrant subjects in order to limit risks of TB transmission in developed countries.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
112 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: despite a regular, although slow, decline in incidence over the last decade, as many as 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths were estimated to have occurred in 2012. TB is by all means a poverty-related disease, mainly affecting the most vulnerable populations in the poorest countries. The presence of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis in most countries, with somewhere prevalence is high, is among the major challenges for TB control, which may hinder recent achievements especially in some settings. Early TB case detection especially in resource-constrained settings and in marginalized groups remains a challenge, and about 3 million people are estimated to remain undiagnosed or not notified and untreated. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently launched a new global TB strategy for the "post-2015 era" aimed at "ending the global TB epidemic" by 2035. This strategy is based on the three pillars that emphasize patient-centred TB care and prevention, bold policies and supportive systems, and intensified research and innovation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the global TB epidemiology as well as of the main challenges that must be faced to eliminate the disease as a public health problem everywhere.
    Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases 10/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: About 95% of cases and 98% of deaths due to tuberculosis (TB) occur in tropical countries while, in temperate low incidence countries, a disproportionate portion of TB cases is diagnosed in immigrants. Urbanization, poverty, poor housing conditions and ventilation, poor nutritional status, low education level, the HIV co-epidemic, the growing impact of chronic conditions such as diabetes are the main determinants of the current TB epidemiology in tropical areas. TB care in these contests is complicated by several barriers such as geographical accessibility, educational, cultural, sociopsychological and gender issues. High quality microbiological and radiological facilities are not widely available, and erratic supply of anti-TB drugs may affect tropical areas from time to time. Nevertheless in recent years, TB control programs reached major achievements in tropical countries as demonstrated by several indicators. Migrants have a high risk of acquire TB before migration. Moreover, after migration, they are exposed to additional risk factors for acquiring or reactivating TB infection, such as poverty, stressful living conditions, social inequalities, overcrowded housing, malnutrition, substance abuse, and limited access to health care. TB mass screening programs for migrants have been implemented in low endemic countries but present several limitations. Screening programs should not represent a stand-alone intervention, but a component of a wider approach integrated with other healthcare activities to ensure the health of migrants.
    Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases 01/2014; 6(1):e2014043.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of morbidity for Peruvian migrants in Florence, Italy, where they account for about 20% of yearly diagnosed cases. A retrospective study on cases notified in Peruvian residents in Florence in the period 2001-2010 was carried out and available Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were genotyped (MIRU-VNTR-24 and Spoligotyping). One hundred thirty eight cases were retrieved. Genotyping performed in 87 strains revealed that 39 (44.8%) belonged to 12 clusters. Assuming that in each cluster the transmission of tuberculosis from the index case took place in Florence, a large proportion of cases could be preventable by improving early diagnosis of contagious cases and contact tracing.
    Infectious disease reports. 11/2014; 6(4):5646.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
3 Downloads
Available from
Oct 18, 2014