AMP-activated protein kinase activator A-769662 is an inhibitor of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase.
ABSTRACT Muscle contraction and metabolic stress are potent activators of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK restores energy balance by activating processes that produce energy while inhibiting those that consume energy. The role of AMPK in the regulation of active ion transport is unclear. Our aim was to determine the effect of the AMPK activator A-769662 on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase function in skeletal muscle cells. Short-term incubation of differentiated rat L6 myotubes with 100 microM A-769662 increased AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation in parallel with decreased Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase alpha(1)-subunit abundance at the plasma membrane and ouabain-sensitive (86)Rb(+) uptake. Notably, the effect of A-769662 on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase was similar in muscle cells that do not express AMPK alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-catalytic subunits. A-769662 directly inhibits the alpha(1)-isoform of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, purified from rat and human kidney cells in vitro with IC(50) 57 microM and 220 microM, respectively. Inhibition of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase by 100 microM ouabain decreases sodium pump activity and cell surface abundance, similar to the effect of A-769662, without affecting AMPK and ACC phosphorylation. In conclusion, the AMPK activator A-769662 inhibits Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and decreases the sodium pump cell surface abundance in L6 skeletal muscle cells. The effect of A-769662 on sodium pump is due to direct inhibition of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, rather than AMPK activation. This AMPK-independent effect on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase calls into question the use of A-769662 as a specific AMPK activator for metabolic studies.
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ABSTRACT: The ability of somatic cells to reprogram their ATP-generating machinery into a Warburg-like glycolytic metabotype while overexpressing stemness genes facilitates their conversion into either induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) or tumor-propagating cells. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic master switch that senses and decodes intracellular changes in energy status; thus, we have evaluated the impact of AMPK activation in regulating the generation of iPSCs from nonstem cells of somatic origin. The indirect and direct activation of AMPK with the antidiabetic biguanide metformin and the thienopyridone A-769662, respectively, impeded the reprogramming of mouse embryonic and human diploid fibroblasts into iPSCs. The AMPK activators established a metabolic barrier to reprogramming that could not be bypassed, even through p53 deficiency, a fundamental mechanism to greatly improve the efficiency of stem-cell production. Treatment with metformin or A-769662 before the generation of iPSC colonies was sufficient to drastically decrease iPSC generation, suggesting that AMPK activation impedes early stem cell genetic reprogramming. Monitoring the transcriptional activation status of each individual reprogramming factor (i.e., Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc) revealed that AMPK activation notably prevented the transcriptional activation of Oct4, the master regulator of the pluripotent state. AMPK activation appears to impose a normalized metabolic flow away from the required pro-immortalizing glycolysis that fuels the induction of stemness and pluripotency, endowing somatic cells with an energetic infrastructure that is protected against reprogramming. AMPK-activating anti-reprogramming strategies may provide a roadmap for the generation of novel cancer therapies that metabolically target tumor-propagating cells.Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 03/2012; 11(5):974-89. · 5.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a heterotrimeric protein complex with serine/threonine kinase activity has a central role in controlling cellular energy expenditure. Small molecule-based activation of AMPK represents an attractive therapeutic proposition because of AMPK's ability to regulate several anabolic and catabolic pathways that are critical to the development of metabolic disorders and cancer. Areas covered: A comprehensive review of published patents that disclose direct AMPK activators is provided: 26 patents comprising 10 chemical classes, and supporting in vitro and in vivo data are discussed. Expert opinion: AMPK activation holds promise as a possible pharmacological intervention in several disease states. The development of direct, highly specific AMPK activators is necessary to fully realize the opportunities linked to AMPK activation and appreciate the risks associated with it.Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents 11/2012; · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Contraction stimulates Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in skeletal muscle. Whether AMPK activation affects Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in skeletal muscle remains to be determined. Short term stimulation of rat L6 myotubes with the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR), activates AMPK and promotes translocation of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α(1)-subunit to the plasma membrane and increases Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity as assessed by ouabain-sensitive (86)Rb(+) uptake. Cyanide-induced artificial anoxia, as well as a direct AMPK activator (A-769662) also increase AMPK phosphorylation and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. Thus, different stimuli that target AMPK concomitantly increase Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. The effect of AICAR on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in L6 myotubes was attenuated by Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, as well as siRNA-mediated AMPK silencing. The effects of AICAR on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase were completely abolished in cultured primary mouse muscle cells lacking AMPK α-subunits. AMPK stimulation leads to Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α(1)-subunit dephosphorylation at Ser(18), which may prevent endocytosis of the sodium pump. AICAR stimulation leads to methylation and dephosphorylation of the catalytic subunit of the protein phosphatase (PP) 2A in L6 myotubes. Moreover, AICAR-triggered dephosphorylation of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was prevented in L6 myotubes deficient in PP2A-specific protein phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1), indicating a role for the PP2A·PME-1 complex in AMPK-mediated regulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Thus contrary to the common paradigm, we report AMPK-dependent activation of an energy-consuming ion pumping process. This activation may be a potential mechanism by which exercise and metabolic stress activate the sodium pump in skeletal muscle.Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2012; 287(28):23451-63. · 4.65 Impact Factor