AMP-activated protein kinase activator A-769662 is an inhibitor of the Na+-K+-ATPase
ABSTRACT Muscle contraction and metabolic stress are potent activators of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK restores energy balance by activating processes that produce energy while inhibiting those that consume energy. The role of AMPK in the regulation of active ion transport is unclear. Our aim was to determine the effect of the AMPK activator A-769662 on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase function in skeletal muscle cells. Short-term incubation of differentiated rat L6 myotubes with 100 microM A-769662 increased AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation in parallel with decreased Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase alpha(1)-subunit abundance at the plasma membrane and ouabain-sensitive (86)Rb(+) uptake. Notably, the effect of A-769662 on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase was similar in muscle cells that do not express AMPK alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-catalytic subunits. A-769662 directly inhibits the alpha(1)-isoform of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, purified from rat and human kidney cells in vitro with IC(50) 57 microM and 220 microM, respectively. Inhibition of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase by 100 microM ouabain decreases sodium pump activity and cell surface abundance, similar to the effect of A-769662, without affecting AMPK and ACC phosphorylation. In conclusion, the AMPK activator A-769662 inhibits Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and decreases the sodium pump cell surface abundance in L6 skeletal muscle cells. The effect of A-769662 on sodium pump is due to direct inhibition of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, rather than AMPK activation. This AMPK-independent effect on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase calls into question the use of A-769662 as a specific AMPK activator for metabolic studies.
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ABSTRACT: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a stress signaling enzyme that orchestrates the regulation of energy-generating and -consuming pathways. Intrinsic AMPK activation protects the heart against ischemic injury and apoptosis, but whether pharmacologic AMPK stimulation mitigates ischemia-reperfusion damage is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether direct stimulation of AMPK using a small molecule activator, A-769662, attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and to examine its cardioprotective mechanisms. Isolated mouse hearts pre-treated with A-769662 had better recovery of left ventricular contractile function (55% vs. 29% of baseline rate-pressure product; p=0.03) and less myocardial necrosis (56% reduction in infarct size; p<0.01) during post-ischemic reperfusion compared to control hearts. Pre-treatment with A-769662 in vivo attenuated infarct size in C57Bl/6 mice undergoing left coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion compared to vehicle (36% vs. 18%, p=0.025). Mouse hearts with genetically inactivated AMPK were not protected by A-769662, indicating the specificity of this compound. Pre-treatment with A-769662 increased the phosphorylation and inactivation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), preserved energy charge during ischemia, delayed the development of ischemic contracture, and reduced myocardial apoptosis and necrosis. A-769662 also augmented endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation during ischemia, which partially attenuated myocardial stunning, but did not prevent necrosis. AMPK is a therapeutic target that can be stimulated by a direct-acting small molecule in order to prevent injury during ischemia-reperfusion. The use of AMPK activators may represent a novel strategy to protect the heart and other solid organs against ischemia.Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 03/2011; 51(1):24-32. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2011.03.003 · 5.22 Impact Factor
Article: AMPK and vasculoprotection[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is proposed to be a key regulator of cellular and organismal metabolism and has reported vasculoprotective effects. In addition, many therapeutic agents used in the treatment of diabetes and atherosclerosis such as metformin, thiazolidinediones and statins may exert their vasculoprotective effects through activation of AMPK. Activation of AMPK has a number of potentially beneficial anti-atherosclerotic effects including reducing adhesion of inflammatory cells to the blood vessel endothelium, reducing lipid accumulation and the proliferation of inflammatory cells caused by oxidised lipids, stimulation of gene expression responsible for cellular antioxidant defenses and stimulation of enzymes responsible for nitric oxide formation. In humans and animals the AMPK cascade triggers vascular protective mechanisms that have been shown to reduce myocardial ischaemic injury and mutations in AMPK can cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Taken together, these data suggest that activation and function of AMPK contributes to cardiovascular health. In this review we propose to focus on the vasculoprotective effects of AMPK, the evidence for AMPK activation with currently used therapeutic agents and the potential for agents which specifically activate AMPK as a treatment for vascular disease.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 11/2010; 131(2):242-53. DOI:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2010.11.002 · 7.75 Impact Factor