Screening respiratory samples for detection of human rhinoviruses (HRVs) and enteroviruses: comprehensive VP4-VP2 typing reveals high incidence and genetic diversity of HRV species C.
ABSTRACT Rhinovirus infections are the most common cause of viral illness in humans, and there is increasing evidence of their etiological role in severe acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are classified into two species, species A and B, which contain over 100 serotypes, and a recently discovered genetically heterogeneous third species (HRV species C). To investigate their diversity and population turnover, screening for the detection and the genetic characterization of HRV variants in diagnostic respiratory samples was performed by using nested primers for the efficient amplification of the VP4-VP2 region of HRV (and enterovirus) species and serotype identification. HRV species A, B, and C variants were detected in 14%, 1.8%, and 6.8%, respectively, of 456 diagnostic respiratory samples from 345 subjects (6 samples also contained enteroviruses), predominantly among children under age 10 years. HRV species A and B variants were remarkably heterogeneous, with 22 and 6 different serotypes, respectively, detected among 73 positive samples. Similarly, by using a pairwise distance threshold of 0.1, species C variants occurring worldwide were provisionally assigned to 47 different types, of which 15 were present among samples from Edinburgh, United Kingdom. There was a rapid turnover of variants, with only 5 of 43 serotypes detected during both sampling periods. By using divergence thresholds and phylogenetic analysis, several species A and C variants could provisionally be assigned to new types. An initial investigation of the clinical differences between rhinovirus species found HRV species C to be nearly twice as frequently associated with ARTIs than other rhinovirus species, which matches the frequencies of detection of respiratory syncytial virus. The study demonstrates the extraordinary genetic diversity of HRVs, their rapid population turnover, and their extensive involvement in childhood respiratory disease.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Increasing recognition of the association of rhinovirus with severe lower respiratory tract illnesses has clarified the need to understand the relationship between specific serotypes of rhinovirus and their clinical consequences. To accomplish this, a specific and sensitive assay to detect and serotype rhinovirus directly from clinical specimens is needed. Traditional methods of serotyping using culture and serum neutralization are time-consuming, limited to certain reference laboratories, and complicated by the existence of over 100 serotypes of human rhinoviruses (HRVs). Accordingly, we have developed a sequence-based assay that targets a 390-bp fragment accounting for approximately two-thirds of the 5' noncoding region (NCR). Our goal was to develop an assay permitting amplification of target sequences directly from clinical specimens and distinction among all 101 prototype strains of rhinoviruses. We determined the sequences of all 101 prototype strains of HRV in this region to enable differentiation of virus genotypes in both viral isolates and clinical specimens. We evaluated this assay in a total of 101 clinical viral isolates and 24 clinical specimens and compared our findings to genotyping results using a different region of the HRV genome (the VP4-VP2 region). Five specimens associated with severe respiratory disease in children did not correlate with any known serotype of rhinovirus and were found to belong to a novel genogroup of rhinovirus, genogroup C. Isolates were also found that corresponded to the genogroup A2 variant identified in New York and Australia and two other novel group A clusters (GAC1 and GAC2).Journal of clinical microbiology 09/2008; 46(11):3736-45. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Infections with human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are prevalent in young children and have been associated with mild gastroenteritis and, less frequently, with meningitis and neonatal sepsis. To investigate the involvement of these viruses in respiratory disease, a highly sensitive nested PCR was used to screen a large archive of respiratory specimens, collected between January and December 2007. Respiratory samples had previously been tested for eight respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus, by PCR. HPeV was detected in 34 of 3,844 specimens, representing 27 of 2,220 study subjects (1.2%). HPeV types were identified by sequencing the VP3/VP1 junction amplified by PCR directly from clinical specimens. The assay could amplify all HPeV types examined with high sensitivity (types 1 and 3 to 6) and also identified HPeV types in all but one of the screen-positive study specimens (25 HPeV1 and eight HPeV6 specimens). Infections with both HPeV1 and HPeV6 were seasonal, with highest frequencies in July and August, and restricted to children aged between 6 months and 5 years. Other respiratory viruses were frequently codetected in HPeV-positive specimens, with significant overrepresentation of adenovirus coinfections (37%). Most HPeV-positive specimens were referred from emergency departments, although no association with specific respiratory symptoms or disease was found. In summary, the low frequency of detection and lack of clear disease associations indicate that HPeV1 and -6 are not major pathogens in individuals presenting with respiratory disease. However, the screening and typing methods developed will be of value in further HPeV testing, including testing for meningitis cases and other suspected HPeV-associated disease presentations.Journal of clinical microbiology 09/2008; 46(10):3446-53. · 4.16 Impact Factor