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TE IVIANA O TE WAIMANA
Tuhoe History of the Tauranga Vallev
--- -6Ut-l(LA"t J U x iV ritSlTY
A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment
of tJre requiremente,for the degree of
Docfor of Philosophy in Anthropology,
University of Auckland' 1984.
This study is an interpretation of history related by
firhoe historians of the Tauranga valley, a valley situated on
the northern side of the Urewera ranges, North Island, New
Zealand. It is also an interpretation of historical records
relating to the Tauranga vaIley Tuhoe community. Fieldwork for
the study was carried out between November L977 and JuIy L978,
and between November L978 and May L979.
It is argued that f-uhoe history of the Tauranga valley
comprises four separate, but connected, domains of discourse.
The first domain considered includes narratives which link tribes
and sub-tribes, and relate them to their land. The second
concerns relationships between local whEnau, extended families
descended from grand-parents of elders now living.
which comprise the third domain focus upon the identity of Rua
Kenana, a Tihoe leader who, with his people the Iharaira (or
Israelit€s) r established a rcity of Godr at Maungap6hatu (at the
source of the Tauranga river).
The fourth domain is that of
reminiscence. Three Tauranga valley settlements are described
by four Iharaira elders; Tataiahape between 1909 and 1915,
!4atahi between 1915 and L927, and Tiwhana in the late I920s
In order to highlight and explore distinctions between
fihoe history and Western history, fdhoe accounts are not
integrated with documentary sources into a single narrative.
The focus is upon tilhoe history and documents are drawn upon
where relevant to an understanding of this history as a
distinctive mode of discourse
My greatest debt of gratitude is to the fihoe kar:mEtua
and their families whose hospitality and aroha made my stay in
the Tauranga valley so deeply rewarding. NE reira, ki nqi iwi
o Piripari, o Tanatana, o Tataiahape, o Tauanui, o pouahf.nau, o
Raroa, o Matahf, o Whakarae, arohanui ki a koutou katoa,
I also wish to thank Katarina Maxwell of Te Whakatohea for
her warm hospitality and wise advice.
To Professor Joan Metge, who kindled my interest in matters
M5ori, hy sincerest gratitude. Also to Professor Jan pouwer
for his friendship and teaching.
My thanks also to Judith Binney and Gillian Chaplin for
their enthusiastic exchange of ideas. To Anton Van de Wouden
of the Whakatane Museum for his assistance with documents and
Thanks to the staff of the Auckland Institute and Museum
Library, Auckland Public, University of Auckland, Turnbull, and
General Assembly Libraries.
To the staff of the Bank of New
Zealand Archives and National Archj.ves and to the records staff,
Department of Education, Auckland.
I wish to express my gratj-tude to the New Zealand University
Grants Committee for a 3 year post-graduate scholarship, and to
the Catholic University, Nijmegen, Holland, for a 6 month
My thanks to Andree Brett for printing the photographs, and
to Caroline Phillips for drawing the maps and figures. Also to
Digna Clark for typing this work. I thank Dr. Max Rimoldi, staff
and fellow graduate students of the university of Auckland
Anthropology Deparmtent for their comments and support.
Finally r wish to thank my supervisor, Dr. Anne salmond
who has been a constant source of encouragement and advice