Taylor II manufacturing simulation software
ABSTRACT Taylor II is a menu-driven simulation package mainly used in manufacturing and logistics. It is developed for the analysis and quantitative evaluation of complex processes especially of those with a dynamic character. A lot of applications in different industries show that there is an increasing need for simulation tools. The paper demonstrates the process of building, analyzing and presenting models of real world systems with Taylor II.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI) have considerable effects on motor function, typically resulting in functional impairment. Pathological changes have been studied at the site of trauma, rostrocaudally within the cord, and in the periphery. Few studies, however, have investigated the consequences of SCI at the cortical level. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to explore the morphological changes in the grey and white matter within the primary motor (M1) cortex of individuals with cervical SCI. The "precentral knob," a landmark of M1 cortex dedicated to hand function, was selected for regionally specific measurements of change. Thirty-one hemispheres of SCI subjects and 28 hemispheres of control subjects were compared using a manual measurement after the images were segmented into grey matter, white matter, and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). No significant differences in grey matter area measured at the precentral knob were found with the manual approach. An automated voxel-based morphometric analysis was also performed and demonstrated no significant differences in grey or white matter volume within an M1 region of interest. These data suggest that there is no gross anatomical change within M1 following cervical SCI. Our previously reported findings of reorganization of cortical motor output maps following SCI therefore likely result from changes in functional organization rather than anatomical changes.Brain Research 12/2004; 1028(1):19-25. · 2.88 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Great progress has been made in recent years in experimental strategies for spinal cord repair. In this review we describe two of these strategies, namely the use of neurotrophic factors to promote functional regeneration across the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ), and the use of synthetic fibronectin conduits to support directed axonal growth. The junction between the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) is marked by a specialized region, the DREZ, where sensory axons enter the spinal cord from the dorsal roots. After injury to dorsal roots, axons will regenerate as far as the DREZ but no further. However, recent studies have shown that this barrier can be overcome and function restored. In animals treated with neurotrophic factors, regenerating axons cross the DREZ and establish functional connections with dorsal horn cells. For example, intrathecal delivery of neurotrophin 3 (NT3) supports ingrowth of A fibres into the dorsal horn. This ingrowth is revealed using a transganglionic anatomical tracer (cholera toxin subunit B) and analysis at light and electron microscopic level. In addition to promoting axonal growth, spinal cord repair is likely to require strategies for supporting long-distance regeneration. Synthetic fibronectin conduits may be useful for this purpose. Experimental studies indicate that fibronectin mats implanted into the spinal cord will integrate with the host tissue and support extensive and directional axonal growth. Growth of both PNS and CNS axons is supported by the fibronectin, and axons become myelinated by Schwann cells. Ongoing studies are aimed at developing composite conduits and promoting axonal growth from the fibronectin back into the spinal cord.Journal of Physiology-Paris 01/2002; 96(1-2):123-33. · 0.82 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The sources of non-white noise in Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are many. Familiar sources include low-frequency drift due to hardware imperfections, oscillatory noise due to respiration and cardiac pulsation and residual movement artefacts not accounted for by rigid body registration. These contributions give rise to temporal autocorrelation in the residuals of the fMRI signal and invalidate the statistical analysis as the errors are no longer independent. The low-frequency drift is often removed by high-pass filtering, and other effects are typically modelled as an autoregressive (AR) process. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach: Nuisance Variable Regression (NVR). By inclusion of confounding effects in a general linear model (GLM), we first confirm that the spatial distribution of the various fMRI noise sources is similar to what has already been described in the literature. Subsequently, we demonstrate, using diagnostic statistics, that removal of these contributions reduces first and higher order autocorrelation as well as non-normality in the residuals, thereby improving the validity of the drawn inferences. In addition, we also compare the performance of the NVR method to the whitening approach implemented in SPM2.NeuroImage 02/2006; 29(1):54-66. · 6.25 Impact Factor
Proceedings of the 1998 Winter Simulation Conference
D.J. Medeiros, E.F. Watson, J.S. Carson and M.S. Manivannan, eds.
TAYLOR II MANUFACTURING SIMULATION SOFTWARE
William B. Nordgren
F&H Simulations, Inc.
1366 South 740 East
Orem, Utah 84097, U.S.A.
Taylor II is a menu-driven simulation package mainly used
in manufacturing, warehousing, and material handling. It
is developed for the analysis and quantitative evaluation of
complex processes, especially those with a dynamic
character. A lot of applications in different industries show
that there is an increasing need for simulation tools. This
paper will demonstrate the process of building, analyzing
and presenting models of real world systems with Taylor
Companies spend a lot of time and money to obtain highest
performance from machines and plants. Besides expensive
and complicated techniques, there are catchwords like
flexibility, just-in-time, lean production, etc. All these
terms are based on the optimization of delivery, reliability,
throughput times, stocks, utilization: i.e. costs. The prob-
lem is often it is nearly impossible to make a quantitative
approach to these characteristics. Two factors are respon-
sible: complexity and uncertainty. With an increasing
number of components being in relationship to each other,
it becomes more and more difficult to describe the system
mathematically. When the second factor, uncertainty, is
involved, even analytical methods fail. Uncertainties
include: machine breakdowns, varying cycle times and
batch sizes, waste and reject, etc. Throughput times, buffer
sizes, the effects of resources influencing each other cannot
be determined with conventional methods. Here, at least,
you have to resort to assumptions, experience and intuition,
although a better insight would be desirable. At least both
possibilities of a bad system dimension, too high and too
low, cause much costs. For these problems simulation can
be a powerful tool to justify decisions or even prevent you
from making wrong decisions.
Taylor II is a package for the simulation of discrete
event systems. In general, you can simulate all kinds of
systems in which discrete entities are to be processed,
transported and stored (queuing systems).
Usually these entities are parts, tools, pallets, etc. This
shows that Taylor II is not limited to specific industries.
Besides manufacturing there
distribution centers, harbors, airports, etc. Even in
administration, simulation can be useful. Think of people
or documents (information) which can be represented by
Taylor is a Dutch product, developed by F&H
Simulations B.V. since 1986. The package is installed in
more than 2000 companies and educational institutes. In
the middle of 1996, the package, now called Taylor II for
Windows received a complete new structure and integrates
all necessary functions for a simulation study. There is one
platform for modeling simulation, animation, analysis and
presentation. In the following, all important functions will
are applications in
2 BUILDING A MODEL
Working with Taylor II usually starts with building a
model. All model building is menu driven. A model
represents a real world system which is to be studied. In
practice, this representation is often simplified. The most
important aspect when doing this is to build a model as
exactly as necessary and not as detailed as possible. What
is the reason for this? The reason is not the least
performance of simulation packages, Taylor II or others,
but an efficient, economical and objective-oriented way of
A model in Taylor II consists of four fundamental
entities being related to each other: elements, jobs,
routings and products. On each element, one or more
operations can take place. The three basic operations are
processing, transporting and storing; in Taylor II they are
called jobs. Jobs are characterized by a cycle time (cycle
times for storage are naturally 0), which can be random.
The entities using the jobs are called products. Products
can be defined freely and represent parts, tools, people, etc.
They take place on an element and are sent to another
element when the operation is finished. Therefore, you
need a description of how the products flow through a
model. This description is stored in routings. Routings
consist of a number of stages (routing records). At each
stage it is defined which job-element is used and what the
next stage is.
2.1 Layout and Routings
Defining a layout is the first step when building a model.
A layout contains a number of different element types that
you can position in different sizes and in any place on your
screen. The following element types are available in
Taylor II: Inout, Machine, Buffer, Conveyor, Transport,
Path, Aid(operator), Warehouse and Reservoir. Choosing
a type depends on the function in the real world system. A
machine is the general purpose representation for any kind
of operation so that a machine could be a robot, a mill, a
counter, etc. Inout elements represent entries and exits
(sink/sources) in a model. They can generate and ‘eat’
products freely. A buffer is for storage. Transports and
conveyors represent continuous
transportation. Aid elements are generally assigned to
other elements. An aid could be an operator. Warehouses
and reservoirs are buffers with some special functions. In a
warehouse you can place products at a specific location,
which is described by a number of cells horizontally and
vertically. In a reservoir there is the possibility to define
open/close control levels. Each element placed in the
layout gets one job automatically.
When necessary, additional jobs can be assigned later.
Besides the cycle time, a job also describes how an
operation is done concerning input batch, additional
Now one or more routings are to be defined. By
selecting the elements one after another you describe the
path the products follow in the model. In most models the
routing roughly reflect the flow of products because there
are a number of product types taking (nearly) the same
path and you can specify differences later. In some
applications you have to handle a large number of product
types all using different routings, i.e. in a job shop. In this
case, Taylor II offers the modeler to import process routing
descriptions from external files.
2.2 Detailing the Model
The second step is to detail the model. This means
entering parameters describing the behavior of the model
that differ from the default settings. Usually only some of
the parameters are needed, so it is not necessary to fill a lot
of masks before starting the model for the first time. Most
of the parameters are related to the fundamental entities
discussed above. Element parameters describe the
behavior of the elements: what kind of element it is,
stochastic (breakdowns) and deterministic (shifts, pauses),
availability, how many products it can store, fixed and
variable costs, how it selects its next task, etc. The job
parameters are similar.
Many systems seem to be quite simple. When looking
at details, one often finds different kinds of rules and
strategies to make decisions. That is the reason why
implementing these decision points takes most of the
modeling time. An important aspect in this phase is the way
a simulation tool supports the user. Two items have to be
discussed: high flexibility for implementing control logic
and easy to test right working of the model (verification).
Besides special functions for verification the on-line
animation in Taylor II plays a large part. When the layout
and the routings are finished, animation is available
immediately. All changes in the model can be seen on the
screen at once. The user is able to detail and to test the
model step-by-step until the model runs according to his
Every company producing simulation software is in a
dilemma when developing a concept for control logic. The
software should be easy to use but, the system should also
allow all possible constructions. These two aspects are
hard to combine. Distributors go different ways from fixed
implemented strategies or decision tables to interfaces for
programming languages or combinations of them. Besides
a number of default strategies, Taylor II uses a macro
language called TLI (Taylor Language Interface). TLI is
an easy to use programming language that allows for
modifying the model’s behavior powerfully in combination
with simulation-specific predefined and user-definable
variables. TLI is used at element, job and routing level.
There is also the possibility to use TLI interactively during
a simulation run to make queries and updates. An interface
to own routines written in C, Basic, Pascal, etc. is also
available. Typical situations in which the routines have to
be modified are loops (i.e. rework), selecting elements as a
result of a certain status, assembly, disassembly, etc.
Taylor II can send products from each stage in the model to
each other in each quantity. For this purpose the user has
direct access to all addresses in a routing and replaces the
(in most cases) fixed values by expressions of the
select number with condition from list order
expression quantity list location list
These so called ‘select’ statement are used for sending
and receiving products. The italic parts in this structure
can be values or other expressions. Selections can also be
nested. This offers many possibilities for order picking,
assembly and complex guiding and receiving strategies.
Taylor II Manufacturing Simulation Software
select 1 from 3,4,5
One product will be sent to machine 3, 4 or 5.
select 1 from 3,4,5 order - utilization [L]
The same as above, but the machine with the lowest
utilization has the highest priority.
select maximum[1,F] with elqueue[L]<5 from 3,4,5
An (express) order uses the maximum number of
machines. Only machines with a stock less than 5 are
taken into consideration.
Elements are described by fixed acceptance rules for
picking products or other TLI-user-definable rules and
strategies for entry and exit of products. Examples are:
Entry condition: plan from file
The element chooses the next order from a list stored
in a disk file.
TLI-entry condition: time|600<120
A conveyor accepts products only for the first 120
seconds in a 600 second interval, (| stands for modulo).
The expression is true for 120 seconds.
Product types are described by a code (in combination
with an icon) and by size (important for conveyors).
Sometimes it is necessary that products get individual
information or signs. Information could be a delivery date,
priority, state of work, etc. For this purpose, products are
coupled with attributes. Attributes can also work as a
pointer to a matrix in which i.e., cycletimes are stored.
This enlarges the amount of possible information
enormously. Querying and updating of the attributes are
done at the jobs by evaluating triggers. A trigger is one (or
more) simple lines of text with a TLI-expression. Triggers
can be evaluated nearly every time an event is scheduled.
They can influence products (with their attributes) or the
model status itself. An example is:
Trigger on Entry: curcycle[J]:=att2[C]
The cycle time of the order is stored in the second
attribute and is assigned when the product enters the job.
Assume that a model is built with Taylor II. Now
starts the actual simulation, apart from the (little)
simulation when testing the model.
In stochastic processes random numbers play an important
part. Taylor II comes with different random number
generators which normally work independently from each
other. In some experiments you may want to study
alternatives of a system. Then the models should run with
identical conditions and for this purpose it could be
necessary that all generators generate the same sequence of
Taylor II is fully event-oriented. this means that the
time between two events (i.e., beginning and ending of an
operation ) needs no CPU time. An internal event list
makes sure that all changes in status are evaluated.
For every simulation run, the start situation is free to
define. Products can be stored in any quantity at any place
in the model. To reduce the warm-up period (moment of
time that a model runs with stable status) you can make a
warmstart. For a number of various runs you can define a
During simulation you can zoom, pan and rotate
freely, stop, make modifications and then continue. A
model can be simulated during a certain period of time or
until a special (user-defined) condition is met.
The time representation is fully user-definable (i.e.
week 8; tue; 8:30,2) and is displayed by an analog and
digital clock. With the single-step-mode you can trace
your model in detail or you use the conditional single-step
for watching a part of the model only.
While simulating, the screen output can be
interactively changed, ranging from no information (as fast
as possible), via statistics and simple animation to full
animation. With full animation you see each product
moving from stage to stage or queuing in the system.
Taylor II automatically keeps track of a large number of
common statistics like utilization, waiting times, etc.
Default and user-defined statistics can be displayed as
numbers or as dynamically changing graphs. Especially
determining the end of the warm-up period. Taylor II can
also keep track of any kind of variables you want and
display them after the simulation run.
For a correct description of a model, a number of input
data is required like arrival times, cycletimes, breakdown
failures, etc. Often these data exist in protocols, databases,
etc. But the question is: is there enough data to
characterize a process well or are they only a part of
reality? That means a detailed analysis with statistical
methods should be done first. Taylor can read in datasets
and analyze them. Two important parameters are the
average value and the standard deviation. another point is
the statistical distribution which fits best. A built in routine
automatically makes a distribution suggestion for the
dataset and displays this distribution depending on the
type, in continuous or discrete form on the screen.
Typical information you get from a simulation study is
utilizations, throughput times, production per period and
costs. The results are available in different ways:
Tabular reports: contents and form are predefined, but
may be changed by the user.
TLI reports: containing a mixture of explanation,
results and illustration or giving specific results.
Queries: all results can be queried with TLI
interactively (including minimum, maximum, average and
Predefined graphs: wait time histogram, queue graph,
status diagram, utilization pie, etc.
User-defined graphs: representation of any kind of
data like throughput times, costs, etc.
Graphs can be displayed in over 10 types of general
purpose representation: histograms, bar graphs, x-y plots,
pie charts, etc. including averages (whole and cumulative),
standard deviation and so on. All reports and graphs can
be sent to screen, disk file and printer or you can export
these data for use in other programs.
In the past animation has been treated as a nice but more or
less unnecessary extra. Taylor II has an extensive built-in
There are several reasons. First, similar to the
discussion in Section 2.2, the animation can be very useful
(but generally not replace) for verifying a model. For this
purpose the 2-D animation is available as soon as routing is
created. With little additional work, 3-D animation is
available too. They are useful when giving presentations
to management or customers (often more convincing than
rough numbers or in the educational sector. A number of
ready-to-use 2-D and 3-D libraries come with the package.
With the built-in paintbox you can define your own
icon-sets or draw background illustrations. The 3-D paint
module allows you to change exiting or to add 3-D element
icons. Background drawings are automatically translated
into vector files for sealing and rotating. Existing drawings
can be imported into the HPGL format.
6 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
In addition to the points above there are some special
functions useful (not essentially necessary) for the daily
work. When simulating a lot of alternative models with
different parameters and settings you could lose your
overview. For this purpose, Taylor II generates a model
documentation (text file) describing the whole model.
another important aid is the context-sensitive online help
with index and page search facility.
Besides stochastic arrival patterns, Taylor II can
process external files (ASCII-file) with an unlimited
number of deterministic product arrivals including arrival
time, quantities and product attributes. This offers the
possibility to simulate with real data. Special arrival
patterns, think of season influences of daily peaks, can be
generated with genlink. Genlink generates an external file
by taking samples from different distributions.
External files can also be used to define deterministic
machine planning or routing specification (see Section
2.1). The handling with ASCII-files becomes easier with
the integrated text editor. DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange)
links exist for windows base products that allow such links.
The ability to created self-running presentations allows
you to build models which explain themselves. With a
runtime module you can give all models to other people
that are participating in a simulation study.
Taylor II version 4.0 includes several new that have
been specially designed for windows 95. The Taylor
Language Interface has been extended to include the us of
functions. There are also three new modules included.
These are Advanced Statistics (with an autofit module
which tests distributions to fit data and an experiment
module), runtime Development Kit (allowing you to create
customized applications), and the Animator (special 3-D
animation module with shaded animation).
Taylor II integrates all functions necessary for a simulation
study and combines in a simple manner high flexibility
with ease-of-use without
functionality. many applications in different industries;
handling, show this. Fast modeling and online animation
are the concept for the use not only by simulation experts.
Taylor II is used more and more in education institutes for
their practical courses in engineering.
Continuous customer feed back and our own
consulting department enable F&H to keep improving
Taylor II. This experience is also an advantage for the
support and training courses that we offer.
making concessions to
WILLIAM B. NORDGREN is President of F&H
Simulations, Inc. U.S.A. He received his Master of
Science in Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM), and
Bachelor of Science in Manufacturing Engineering from
Brigham Young University. Bill was co-founder of
Taylor II Manufacturing Simulation Software
ProModel Corporation and served as Vice President of
Customer Services and Training from 1988 until 1992. In
1993, Bill jointed F&H Simulations B.V. and founded
F&H Simulations, Inc. U.S.A. Through this union Taylor
II Simulation Software was introduced into the United
States, Canada, Mexico and South America. He is listed in
the 22nd, 23rd, 24th and 25th editions of Who’s Who in
the West. He has done simulation projects for several large
corporations including Andersen Consulting, Black &
Decker, Boeing, Eastman Kodak, IBM, Pillsbury, Thiokol,
TRW and Whirlpool