The production of soft, durable, and electrically conductive polyester multifilament yarns by dye-printing them with carbon nanotubes
ABSTRACT Carbon nanotube based dyestuffs were prepared by dispersing aggregates of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in water using a blend of zwitterionic surfactants with anionic surfactants. Using a dye-printing approach, the carbon nanotubes were directly applied to polyester multifilament yarns to form an electrically conductive layer over each filament of the multifilament yarn. Yarns having electrical resistivity ranging from 10^3 to 10^9 ohm/cm were obtained. Yarn with a resistivity of 10^3 ohm/cm could be used to form flat, soft, and portable electrical heaters by vertically weaving the yarns into fabrics. The 10^5 ohm/cm yarns could be used for anti-static clothing, and the 10^9 ohm/cm level yarns for brushes for photocopying machines.
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ABSTRACT: A simple method was used to assemble single-walled carbon nanotubes into indefinitely long ribbons and fibers. The processing consists of dispersing the nanotubes in surfactant solutions, recondensing the nanotubes in the flow of a polymer solution to form a nanotube mesh, and then collating this mesh to a nanotube fiber. Flow-induced alignment may lead to a preferential orientation of the nanotubes in the mesh that has the form of a ribbon. Unlike classical carbon fibers, the nanotube fibers can be strongly bent without breaking. Their obtained elastic modulus is 10 times higher than the modulus of high-quality bucky paper.Science 12/2000; 290(5495):1331-4. · 31.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO) has been synthesized in the presence of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in poly(phosphoric acid) (PPA) using typical PBO polymerization conditions. PBO and PBO/SWNT lyotropic liquid crystalline solutions in PPA have been spun into fibers using dry-jet wet spinning. The tensile strength of the PBO/SWNT fiber containing 10 wt % SWNTs is about 50% higher than that of the control PBO fibers containing no SWNTs. The structure and morphology of these fibers have been studied.Macromolecules. 10/2002; 35(24).
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ABSTRACT: With their impressive individual properties, carbon nanotubes should form high-performance fibers. We explored the roles of nanotube length and structure, fiber density, and nanotube orientation in achieving optimum mechanical properties. We found that carbon nanotube fiber, spun directly and continuously from gas phase as an aerogel, combines high strength and high stiffness (axial elastic modulus), with an energy to breakage (toughness) considerably greater than that of any commercial high-strength fiber. Different levels of carbon nanotube orientation, fiber density, and mechanical properties can be achieved by drawing the aerogel at various winding rates. The mechanical data obtained demonstrate the considerable potential of carbon nanotube assemblies in the quest for maximal mechanical performance. The statistical aspects of the mechanical data reveal the deleterious effect of defects and indicate strategies for future work.Science 01/2008; 318(5858):1892-5. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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The production of soft, durable, and electrically conductive
polyester multifilament yarns by dye-printing them with carbon
Fugetsu, Bunshi; Akiba, Eiji; Hachiya, Masaaki; Endo,
CitationCarbon, 47(2): 527-530
Typearticle (author version)
Hokkaido University Collection of Scholarly and Academic Papers : HUSCAP
The production of soft, durable, and electrically conductive polyester
multifilament yarns by dye-printing them with carbon nanotubes
Bunshi Fugetsu1*, Eiji Akiba2, Masaaki Hachiya3, Morinobu Endo 4
1 Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810,
2 Kurary Living Co., LTD., Umeda kita-ku, Osaka 530-8611, Japan
3 Chakyu Dyeing Co., LTD., Ichinomiya-City, Aichi 494-0001, Japan
4 Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University, 4-17-1, Wakasato, Nagano-shi, 380-8553,
*Corresponding author: Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University,
Sapporo 060-0810, Japan. Fax: +81 11 706 2272. Email address: firstname.lastname@example.org (B.
Continuous yarns and/or fibers composed of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are highly
attractive due to their intrinsic ability to form a variety of macroscopic objects by simply
knitting and/or weaving of the yarns/fibers. The production of continuous yarns of pure CNTs
has been accomplished by “dry-spinning”, the mechanical process of spinning either the
single-walled CNTs directly from a CVD (chemical vapor deposition) gaseous reaction zone
[1, 2] or with the multi-walled CNTs previously grown as a vertically oriented CNT forest [3,
4] . In contrast, “wet-spinning”, the spinning of a “super-acid (100 + %sulfuric acid)
suspension”  of the single-walled CNTs, produced purely CNT-based continuous fibers.
The pure CNT-based yarns and/or fibers retained the advantageous properties of the
individual nanotubes, such as the high electrical and thermal conductivities. However, the
preparation of industrial quantities of the single-walled CNTs or the multi-walled CNT
forests, the precursors for making the CNT-based yarns/fibers, is presently impractical.
Continuous fibers containing a few wt % of CNTs, obtained, for example, by
incorporating the single-walled CNTs into PVA polymers [6, 7], have shown excellent fiber
properties, but electrical and thermal conductivities were low because of limitations on the
contents of CNTs. Despite the production of continuous fibers with up to 60 wt% CNT
content , the development of the CNT-based continuous yarns/fibers having high industrial
applicability remains a challenging issue.
In this study, we used CNTs as “dyestuffs” for producing CNT-based continuous yarns by
directly dye-printing of polyester multifilament continuous yarns. To our best knowledge,
this is the first use CNTs for direct dye-printing of continuous multifilament yarns. CNTs,
even the multi-walled types, are characterized by extremely large aspect ratios, because of
their nanometer sized diameters and their micrometer (~ few hundred micrometers) sized
length. This so-called one-dimensional morphology of CNTs results in stronger adhesion
properties (in comparison with the so-called zero-dimensional materials, such as carbon
blacks), suggesting a possible application for directly employing CNTs as dyestuffs for
dyeing of fibers, yarns, and textiles. Such application, as demonstrated in this study, was
achieved by using CNTs at molecular levels (or tubular levels) for dispersions as dyestuffs.
Typical CVD products of multi-walled CNTs (Baytubes® C 150P), received as powders, have
been used for preparing the CNT-based dyestuffs. Briefly, 300 g of the CNT powders were
introduced into 10 L of an aqueous solution containing 40 g of 3-(N,N-
dimethylmyristylammonio)-propanesulfonate and 30 g of polyoxyethylene lauryl ether
sulfonate, to prepare the raw CNT-suspension. This suspension was then used as the
precursor for preparing the CNT-based dyestuffs by dispersing the CNT-aggregates at the
molecular level using a continuously operating bead-mill system. Three essential strategies
are involved in the preparation of the CNTs-based dyestuffs. i) Wetting of CNTs: air and
moisture were displaced from the surfaces of the CNT-aggregates by replacing them with the
dispersants. This objective was accomplished in the process of preparing the raw CNT-
suspensions and the best wetting efficiencies were obtained by using a combination of 3-
(N,N-dimethylmyristylammonio)-propanesulfonate, a zwitterionic type of surfactants and
polyoxyethylene lauryl ether sulfonate, an anionic type of surfactant, as the dispersants. ii)
Grinding of the “wetted CNT-aggregates”: CNT-aggregates, after being well wetted by the
blended zwitterionic/anionic dispersants, were easily dispersed into individual tubes by very
mild mechanical shear forces through the use of a continuously operating bead-mill system.
(Hereafter, CNT-aggregates, after being dispersed into individual tubes, will be referred as
the “molecular level (or tubular level) of dispersion”.) Particle size distributions, as
measured using a dynamic light scattering size distribution analyzer (Fig. 1), showed that
95% of the overall particles exhibited mean diameters smaller than 270 nm, suggesting that
most of the dispersion of CNTs in the CNT-based dyestuffs occurred at the molecular level.
iii) Addition of a small amount of polymers into the dyestuffs: the electric resistivity of the
CNT-dyed yarns can be precisely controlled at certain levels by controlling the ratios of
carbon nanotubes to polymers in the dyestuffs. In this study, anionic polyurethanes, received
as emulsions, were used as the typical polymers. The CNT-based dyestuffs have a life time
(the mean diameter of CNTs monitored using the dynamic light scattering size distribution
analyzer was used as the essential indicator) longer than 18 months.