Disinfection of Water for Aquaculture

Source: OAI

ABSTRACT International Commemorative Symposium, 70th Anniversary of The Japanese Society of Fisheries Science. 1-5 October 2001. Yokohama, Japan. Disinfection of water for aquaculture is critical for preventing the introduction and spread of infectious disease. A pathogen-free water source is essential for success in aquaculture. Typical treatment systems make use of high efficiency sand filters to clarify the water before treatment with ultraviolet (UV) light or ozonization. Fish pathogens are divided into two groups based on their sensitivity to UV and total residual oxidants (TROs) produced by ozonization of seawater. Hypochlorite produced by electrolysis of seawater (salt water) showed bactericidal and viricidal effects. This method can easily treat large volumes of water, and is suitable for disinfecting wastewater before discharging.

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    ABSTRACT: Salmonid fish and flounders are economically important fish cultured in northern Japan. Viral diseases remain one of the limitations to the successful propagation in aquaculture. The incidence of disease, especially viral disease, has been increasing. Methods currently used to control viral disease in hatcheries are: (a) hygiene and sanitation, (b) disinfection of water supplies and wastewater, (c) selection of pathogen- free broodstock, (d) health monitoring of hatched fry, (e) control of normal intestinal flora, (f) vaccination, and (g) temperature control.
  • Fish Pathology - FISH PATHOL. 01/2007; 42(2):111-113.
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    ABSTRACT: Special Issue: International Symposium on Koi Herpesvirus Disease : Strategy for Koi Herpesvirus Disease Control. 13 March 2004. Yokohama, Japan. Survival of three salmonid viruses and two marine fish viruses in fish rearing water or coastal sea water were observed at 0, 5, 10 and 15 ℃ for 7 or 14 days. Interaction between viruses and microorganisms present in the rearing water was observed. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and fish nodavirus (BF-NNV) were stable in waters used at every temperature tested for 14 days, but it was observed that, for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), Oncorhynchus masou virus (OMV), and hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV), as the temperature increased, the loss of infectivity also increased. When IHNV and OMV were suspended in filtrated and autoclaved rearing water, infectivity was reduced in comparison with the untreated water. Subsequently, adsorption of IHNV to mud or small particles was studied. IHNV adsorbed to several clays (kaolin, bentonite, Japanese acid clay) and diatomaceous earth in sterilized water with a wide range of pH (5-11) at concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 mg/mL. Except for bentonite, infectivity of clay-adsorbed IHNV persisted for at least 9 weeks. The clay-adsorbed IHNV also persisted in infectivity to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, causing cumulative mortality rates of more than 73 %. Then, inactivation effects of UV irradiation, ozonization, and electrolyzation of water were studied against six fish rhabdoviruses, three fish herpesviruses, one fish birnaviruses, one fish iridovirus, and one fish nodavirus. Six rhabdoviruses, three herpesviruses, and lymphocystis disease virus were found to be sensitive to UV irradiation, ozonization, and electrolyzation. Susceptibility of IPNV, chum salmon virus (CSV), and BFNNV to UV was found to be low. IPNV and CSV were low sensitive to ozonization and electrolyzation. Virucidal effects of six kinds of disinfectants were examined against OMV, IPNV, IHNV, and HIRRV at 15 and 20℃ for 30 sec and 20 min. At 15℃ for 20 min, minimum concentrations showing 100 % plaque reduction of viruses tested by iodophore, sodium hypochlorite solution, benzalconium chloride solution, saponated cresole solution, formaldehyde solution, and potassium permanganate solution were 40, 50, 100, 100, 3500, and 16 ppm, respectively.


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