Conference Paper

Crossatron Modulator Designs And Performance For Plasma-based Ion Implantation Systems

Hughes Research Laboratories
DOI: 10.1109/MODSYM.1994.597029 Conference: Power Modulator Symposium, 1994., Conference Record of the 1994 Twenty-First International
Source: IEEE Xplore

ABSTRACT First Page of the Article

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    ABSTRACT: The treatment of metal and polymer materials by plasma ion implantation (PII) requires high‐voltage, high average‐power modulators to process relatively large‐size parts in a reasonable amount of time. CROSSATRON‐switch‐based modulators provide all of the features desired for large‐scale PII. The fast opening and closing capability of the switch eliminates the need for pulse‐forming networks and high‐voltage thyratrons, and allows arbitrary pulse width adjustment over the range of 2 to 100 μs of interest for PII. The CROSSATRON switch is capable of modulating high peak currents, which permits rapid charging of the relatively high capacitance of the PII load to provide fast switching times. The CROSSATRON switch requires only a low‐voltage (≤1 kV) pulsed biasing of the control grid to close and open, and has switching times of 1 μs or less. CROSSATRON switches are cold‐cathode, plasma discharge devices that also eliminate the need for large filament‐heater power supplies and higher grid‐drive power required for hard‐vacuum‐tube switches. A 100‐kV modulator, built at Hughes Research Laboratories for the PII program, has demonstrated reliable operation at up to 100 kW of average power, limited only by the existing power supply. The modulator is based on the 120‐kV, 8455H CROSSATRON switch, which provides hard‐tube‐like modulation at peak currents of up to 1000 A and pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) of over 1 kHz.
    Journal of vacuum science & technology. B, Microelectronics and nanometer structures: processing, measurement, and phenomena: an official journal of the American Vacuum Society 04/1994; · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many new plasma processes ideas are finding their way from the research lab to the manufacturing plant floor. These require high voltage (HV) pulse power equipment, which must be optimized for application, system efficiency, and reliability. Although no single HV pulse technology is suitable for all plasma processes, various classes of high voltage pulsers may offer a greater versatility and economy to the manufacturer. Technology developed for existing radar and particle accelerator modulator power systems can be utilized to develop a modern large scale plasma source ion implantation (PSII) system. The HV pulse networks can be broadly defined by two classes of systems, those that generate the voltage directly, and those that use some type of pulse forming network and step‐up transformer. This article will examine these HV pulse technologies and discuss their applicability to the specific PSII process. Typical systems that will be reviewed will include high power solid state, hard tube systems such as crossed‐field ‘‘hollow beam’’ switch tubes and planar tetrodes, and ‘‘soft’’ tube systems with crossatrons and thyratrons. Results will be tabulated and suggestions provided for a particular PSII process.  
    Journal of vacuum science & technology. B, Microelectronics and nanometer structures: processing, measurement, and phenomena: an official journal of the American Vacuum Society 04/1994; · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    Pulsed Power Conference, 1993. Digest of Technical Papers. Ninth IEEE International; 07/1993