Differential Reflectivity Measurements in Rain: First Experiments
ABSTRACT Results of the first measurements of differential reflectivity (ZDR) in rain are reported. ZDR = 10 log (ZH/ZV) dB involves copolar measurements of ZH and ZV, the radar reflectivity factors at horizontal and vertical polarizations, respectively. The data were obtained with the University of Chicago-Illinois State Water Survey (CHILL) radar facility in Oklahoma during Spring 1977 and confirmed theoretical expectations that ZDR should be positive, ranging between around 0-4 dB. By combining ZDR measurements with ZH, it is shown how estimates of N0 and D0, the parameters of an exponential raindrop size distribution, can be obtained. These estimates were subsequently used to compute rainfall rates as a function of range along a radar ray. These results illustrate that ZDR can have important applications in the quantitative, remote measurement of drop-size distributions and rainfall.