Mechanism of Electron Trapping and Characteristics of Traps in HfO2 Gate Stacks
ABSTRACT Electron trapping in high- gate dielectrics under constant voltage stress is investigated. It is suggested that the electron trapping occurs through a two-step process: resonant tunneling of the injected electron into the preexisting defects (fast trapping) and thermally activated migration of trapped electrons to unoccupied traps (slow trapping). Characteristics of the electron traps extracted based on the proposed model are in good agreement with the calculated properties of the negatively charged oxygen vacancies. The model successfully describes low-temperature threshold voltage instability in NMOS transistors with /TiN gate stacks.
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ABSTRACT: High-k gate dielectrics, particularly Hf-based materials, are likely to be implemented in CMOS advanced technologies. One of the important challenges in integrating these materials is to achieve lifetimes equal or better than their SiO<sub>2</sub> counterparts. In this paper we review the status of reliability studies of high-k gate dielectrics and try to illustrate it with experimental results. High-k materials show novel reliability phenomena related to the asymmetric gate band structure and the presence of fast and reversible charge. Reliability of high-k structures is influenced both by the interfacial layer as well as the high-k layer. One of the main issues is to understand these new mechanisms in order to asses the lifetime accurately and reduce them.IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability 04/2005; · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Over recent years, there has been increasing research and development efforts to replace SiO<sub>2</sub> with high dielectric constant (high-κ) materials such as HfO<sub>2</sub>, HfSiO, and Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>. An important transistor reliability issue is the threshold voltage stability under prolonged stressing. In these materials, threshold voltage is observed to shift with stressing time and conditions, thereby giving rise to threshold voltage instabilities. In this paper, we review various causes of threshold voltage instability: charge trapping under positive bias stressing, positive charge creation under negative bias stressing (NBTI), hot-carrier stressing, de-trapping and transient charge trapping effects in high-κ gate dielectric stacks. Experimental and modeling studies for these threshold voltage instabilities are reviewed.IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability 04/2005; · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Negative bias temperature instability has become an important reliability concern for ultra-scaled Silicon IC technology with significant implications for both analog and digital circuit design. In this paper, we construct a comprehensive model for NBTI phenomena within the framework of the standard reaction–diffusion model. We demonstrate how to solve the reaction–diffusion equations in a way that emphasizes the physical aspects of the degradation process and allows easy generalization of the existing work. We also augment this basic reaction–diffusion model by including the temperature and field-dependence of the NBTI phenomena so that reliability projections can be made under arbitrary circuit operating conditions.Microelectronics Reliability. 01/2005;