Temperature characteristics of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a broad-gain bandwidth

Opto-Electron. Res. Labs., NEC Corp., Ibaraki
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics (Impact Factor: 2.83). 07/1995; 1(2):654 - 660. DOI: 10.1109/2944.401254
Source: IEEE Xplore


Temperature-insensitive characteristics are of great importance in
implementing the actual applications of vertical-cavity surface-emitting
lasers (VCSEL's) because of the temperature change in the surroundings.
To extend the operational temperature range of such lasers, we
fabricated a VCSEL with a broad gain bandwidth. The active layers in
VCSEL's consist of multiple quantum wells (MQW's) with different bandgap
energies. From the change in the threshold current, with temperature as
a parameter, we found that the operational temperature range of a VCSEL
with a broad gain bandwidth is more than 20°C wider than that of
conventional VCSEL's, whose active layers consist of a single type of
MQW. We demonstrate that the extended-gain bandwidth gives better
temperature characteristics. In addition, we simulated the structure of
the active layers, and the optimized structure resulted in a 1-mW light
output power at less than 5 mA in a single transverse mode oscillation
from 20-70°C

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    • "This presents a specific difficulty for VCSELs as the lasing energy of the cavity mode has a different temperature dependence to that of the peak of the optical gain spectrum. Strategies to minimize this, employed at other wavelengths, involve broadening the gain spectrum by the use of several different multiquantum wells [3], [4] or using the contributions of higher subbands [5]. However, this has the effect of reducing device efficiency by requiring nonlasing states to be pumped. "
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    ABSTRACT: We have investigated the temperature and pressure dependence of the threshold current (I<sub>th</sub>) of 1.3 μm emitting GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and the equivalent edge-emitting laser (EEL) devices employing the same active region. Our measurements show that the VCSEL devices have the peak of the gain spectrum on the high-energy side of the cavity mode energy and hence operate over a wide temperature range. They show particularly promising I<sub>th</sub> temperature insensitivity in the 250-350 K range. We have then used a theoretical model based on a 10-band k.P Hamiltonian and experimentally determined recombination coefficients from EELs to calculate the pressure and temperature dependency of I<sub>th</sub>. The results show good agreement between the model and the experimental data, supporting both the validity of the model and the recombination rate parameters. We also show that for both device types, the super-exponential temperature dependency of I<sub>th</sub> at 350 K and above is due largely to Auger recombination.
    IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 10/2003; 9(5-9):1202 - 1208. DOI:10.1109/JSTQE.2003.820913 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pitchfork bifurcation polarisation bistability has been observed experimentally in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for the first time. All-optical flipflop operation has been successfully demonstrated by injecting the trigger light inputs having the two orthogonal polarisations
    Electronics Letters 02/1995; 31(2-31):109 - 111. DOI:10.1049/el:19950060 · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors have successfully demonstrated a 1.2 GHz all-optical flip-flop operation using vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by injecting optical trigger pulses having two orthogonal polarisations. The physical mechanism of this flip-flop operation is the pitchfork bifurcation polarisation bistability created by the gain saturation in semiconductor lasers
    Electronics Letters 08/1995; 31(14-31):1150 - 1151. DOI:10.1049/el:19950797 · 0.93 Impact Factor
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