Cycle du carbone et biominéralisation carbonatée en milieu continental: la diagénèse des phases oxalate-carbonate

Source: OAI

ABSTRACT In terrestrial environments, the carbon sequestration pool in the global carbon cycle is almost entirely attributed to soil and plant organic carbon storage while soil mineral carbon is generally neglected. Nevertheless, significant biologically induced accumulations of carbonate have been observed in soils under the tropical tree "iroko" (Milicia excelsa). Without an input of calcium from carbonate sources in the system, these accumulations constitute a carbon sink by definition. Approximately 1.2. 10-4 to 2.3.10-3 PgC are not sequestered each year due to deforestation of irokos. This calculation is based on an average of 5.76 kg/yr of carbon sequestration by one tree and extrapolated for to the iroko population in Africa. This proposed quantification suggests that the iroko carbon sink is about one or two orders of magnitude less than some environments such as coral reefs or continental shelfes. Furthermore, this carbon sink is highly significant because the residence time of mineral carbon in carbonate-enriched soils associated with the irokos is 102 - 106 years, i.e. 100,000 times longer than soil organic matter residence time. These accumulations of carbonate are the result of the oxalate-carbonate transformation by oxalotrophic bacteria. The iroko tree provides a large amount of oxalate (a photosynthetic by-product), which once released in the soil, can be consumed by soil oxalotrophic bacteria. There are two consequences of this consumption: (i) carbonate ions are produced and available in the soil solution, (ii) and soil pH increases leading to favorable conditions for carbonate precipitation (in a primary acid soil with a pH around 5, the induced pH can reach 9). In the iroko ecosystem, biological agents are present and active at various scales. Termites and saprophytic fungi are involved in the release of oxalate crystals in the soil. Soil oxalotrophic bacteria are able to consume oxalate leading to CO32- production. Carbonate ions can be pumped by iroko roots, circulating into wood vessels in which they can form calcium carbonate crystals in the presence of calcium, when conditions are favorable. They can also precipitate as calcium carbonate in soil pores, depending on local conditions. Soil bacteria and fungi obviously influence precipitation of carbonate inside the soil. Moreover, regarding carbon isotopic signatures and crystallographic properties of needle fiber calcite (NFC) observed in surficial environments, including African soils, they result from a direct biogenic influence. The nomenclature of the various types of NFC has been reinterpreted regarding diagenesis and geochemical fingerprints. The possible biogenic origin of nanorods usually found in the presence of NFC is also discussed from new observations and experiments. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated the potential importance of the oxalate-carbonate pathway in the global carbon cycle, emphasizing the crucial interrelations between geological and biological processes.

1 Follower
94 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Carbon sequestration in the global carbon cycle is almost always attributed to organic carbon storage alone, while soil mineral carbon is generally neglected. However, due to the longer residence time of mineral carbon in soils (102–106years), if stored in large quantities it represents a potentially more efficient sink. The aim of this study is to estimate the mineral carbon accumulation due to the tropical iroko tree (Milicia excelsa) in Ivory Coast. The iroko tree has the ability to accumulate mineral carbon as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in ferralitic soils, where CaCO3 is not expected to precipitate. An estimate of this accumulation was made by titrating carbonate from two characteristic soil profiles in the iroko environment and by identifying calcium (Ca) sources. The system is considered as a net carbon sink because carbonate accumulation involves only atmospheric CO2 and Ca from Ca-carbonate-free sources. Around one ton of mineral carbon was found in and around an 80-year-old iroko stump, proving the existence of a mineral carbon sink related to the iroko ecosystem. Conservation of iroko trees and the many other biomineralizing plant species is crucial to the maintenance of this mineral carbon sink.
    The Science of Nature 03/2004; 91(4):191-194. · 2.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The colonization of land by eukaryotes probably was facilitated by a partnership (symbiosis) between a photosynthesizing organism (phototroph) and a fungus. However, the time when colonization occurred remains speculative. The first fossil land plants and fungi appeared 480 to 460 million years ago (Ma), whereas molecular clock estimates suggest an earlier colonization of land, about 600 Ma. Our protein sequence analyses indicate that green algae and major lineages of fungi were present 1000 Ma and that land plants appeared by 700 Ma, possibly affecting Earth's atmosphere, climate, and evolution of animals in the Precambrian.
    Science 09/2001; 293(5532):1129-33. DOI:10.1126/science.1061457 · 33.61 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bacteria that could utilize calcium oxalate as a major carbon source were isolated from mycorrhizae of Douglas-fir. About one-third were Streptomyces, of which eight species were identified. These organisms apparently play an important role in maintaining microsite conditions and in recycling calcium in the forest system. The ability to utilize calcium oxalate as a primary substrate provides a useful trait in Streptomyces taxonomy.
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 10/1980; 46(6):611-619. DOI:10.1007/BF00394017 · 1.81 Impact Factor
Show more