A Survey of 3DTV Displays: Techniques and Technologies

Sch. of Eng. at the Univ. of Aberdeen, Aberdeen
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology (Impact Factor: 2.26). 12/2007; DOI: 10.1109/TCSVT.2007.905377
Source: IEEE Xplore

ABSTRACT The display is the last component in a chain of activity from image acquisition, compression, coding transmission and reproduction of 3-D images through to the display itself. There are various schemes for 3-D display taxonomy; the basic categories adopted for this paper are: holography where the image is produced by wavefront reconstruction, volumetric where the image is produced within a volume of space and multiple image displays where two or more images are seen across the viewing field. In an ideal world a stereoscopic display would produce images in real time that exhibit all the characteristics of the original scene. This would require the wavefront to be reproduced accurately, but currently this can only be achieved using holographic techniques. Volumetric displays provide both vertical and horizontal parallax so that several viewers can see 3-D images that exhibit no accommodation/convergence rivalry. Multiple image displays fall within three fundamental types: holoform in which a large number of views give smooth motion parallax and hence a hologram-like appearance, multiview where a series of discrete views are presented across viewing field and binocular where only two views are presented in regions that may occupy fixed positions or follow viewers' eye positions by employing head tracking. Holography enables 3-D scenes to be encoded into an interference pattern, however, this places constraints on the display resolution necessary to reconstruct a scene. Although holography may ultimately offer the solution for 3DTV, the problem of capturing naturally lit scenes will first have to be solved and holography is unlikely to provide a short-term solution due to limitations in current enabling technologies. Liquid crystal, digital micromirror, optically addressed liquid crystal and acoustooptic spatial light modulators (SLMs) have been employed as suitable spatial light modulation devices in holography. Liquid crystal SLMs are generally favored owing to the c-
ommercial availability of high fill factor, high resolution addressable devices. Volumetric displays provide both vertical and horizontal parallax and several viewers are able to see a 3-D image that exhibits no accommodation/convergence rivalry. However, the principal disadvantages of these displays are: the images are generally transparent, the hardware tends to be complex and non-Lambertian intensity distribution cannot be displayed. Multiple image displays take many forms and it is likely that one or more of these will provide the solution(s) for the first generation of 3DTV displays.

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    ABSTRACT: This paper proposes detection of view reversal in a stereo video using depth map and motion vector information. We obtain a depth map by using a stereo matching and divide the input image into foreground and background. Next, we obtain a motion vector field by using a motion estimation. In general, an occluded region is in background when foreground goes toward the adjacent background or the background goes toward the adjacent foreground. But, we will face with the change of foreground and background because their depths also change when view reversal occurs. Therefore, we can detect the view reversal in stereo videos by using the observation that the foreground goes toward the adjacent background or the background goes toward the adjacent foreground. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves good detection rate when the background region is sufficiently occluded by the moving foreground.
    Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers. 01/2013; 50(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Display adaptation is one of the key factors for the success of visual services. For two-dimensional (2D) imaging, the display adaptation is generally accomplished by 2D image re-sampling (i.e., up-/down-sampling). However, when it comes to stereoscopic three-dimensional (S3D) images, 2D re-sampling methods are inadequate because additional consideration on the third dimension of depth is not incorporated. In this paper, we analyze S3D image resizing from two aspects: geometrical deformation and frequency-domain aliasing. A number of S3D displays are available in the market and they have various screen dimensions. As we have more varieties of the displays, efficient S3D image resizing is becoming more emphasized. We present the conditions for equi-proportional S3D image resizing using the model of the binocular vision; and propose an anti-aliasing filter for stereoscopic 3D image up/down-sampling.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a readability enhancement filter for Patterned Retarder (PR) display. In general, when some texts in stereoscopic images are shown on PR display, their readability tends to be lowered. In order to overcome this problem, we present a readability enhancement algorithm which consists of readability filtering stage and post-processing stage for specific characters. First, each input stereo image is divided into an odd line image and an even line image. Then, they are independently up-scaled vertically by using Lanczos filter. Next, two up-scaled line images are averaged considering vertical phase difference. In post-processing stage, two specific characters which are normally difficult to read on PR display are detected, and they are filtered for additional readability enhancement. Here, this additional filtering is based on a specific brightness adjustment, and is applied only for two characters. The experiment results show that the proposed method achieves significant improvement in terms of readability in comparison with the previous scheme.
    Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers. 05/2013; 50(5).

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