Evolution du rôle du bétail dans la gestion de la fertilité des terroirs sereer au Sénégal

Source: OAI

ABSTRACT Le système agraire sereer qui associe un élevage bovin sédentaire à un système de culture relativement intensif, faisait figure de modèle en terme d'aménagement de terroir et de gestion de la fertilité. Mais au cours des dernières décennies la pression démographique croissante, les contraintes écologiques aggravées et les nouvelles pratiques paysannes ont eu pour effet visibles la dégradation du paysage agraire et la désorganisation des sytèmes de culture. Les modes de gestion actuels de la fertilité ne sont pas reproductibles, faute de véritable apport externe compensant les prélèvements que subissent les superficies cultivées. C'est la conséquence la plus évidente de la déconnection entre les activités agricoles et l'élevage bovin que nous constatons. Les situations étudiées font apparaître de très grandes disparités à la fois entre les villages suivis et les années d'observation. Cette diversité dans les pratiques et les résultats s'oppose dorénavant à l'élaboration d'un modèle unique qui traduirait une évolution uniforme du système agraire à l'échelle régionale. (Résumé d'auteur)

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    ABSTRACT: In the Senegal Peanut Basin, the Northern Cameroon and in the Eastern in Burkina-Faso, animal traction is adopted by the majority of farmers. Complete adoption of the technology by farmers is more difficult compare to its use for conductiving selected cultural operations. The first stage of the adoption process is the acquisition of draft animals which can require years of effort. The introduction of animal traction require deep mutation of the production system from farmers who need to find equilibrium within energy availability, land, and manpower at the farm level. The use of animal traction can end up in the expansion of cultivated areas as well as a better agriculture and livestock integration. Changes in resources allocation are expected towards diversification of activities and improvement of revenus. The use of draft animals at the farm level will also bring in new husbandery activities requiring more expenses from farmers. A successul mutation is a good sign of sustained technology adoption by farmers. This process, in need of assistance, is at an advanced stage in the Senegal Peanut Basin and is solely taking place in the Eastern Burkina-Faso and in the Northern Cameroon, with priorities to be given to acquisition of draft animals for unequiped farmers in the Eastern Burkina-Faso and to taking sustainable measures in the all three countries studied farmers production systems.
    Revue d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux 01/2004; 57(3-4):183-190.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the agricultural setting in Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in the context of socio-economic indicators, prevailing agro-ecological zones, dynamics of crop-animal systems, and emerging challenges and their trends in the face of a rapidly changing external environment. More importantly, it draws attention to some of the technological advances that have been made in each region and alludes to potential opportunities for productivity enhancement that can be pursued. In Asian agriculture, crop-animal systems predominate, are generally more stable, and are at different levels of specialisation and intensification, within which there is an enormous diversity of both crops, ruminant and non-ruminant animals. By comparison, in LAC pasture-based mixed farms are more common in which dual-purpose cattle predominate. In West Africa, there is a transition from pastoralism and shifting cultivation to mixed farming systems that are associated with ruminant production and a relatively low level of intensification. The commonalities and differences in crop-animal systems between the three regions, and more importantly, opportunities for productivity enhancement in each of them are identified. A significant feature in both Asia and LAC concerns the influence of strong networks on farming systems, which have strengthened human and institutional capacity on systems research and integrated natural resource management (NRM). Technological opportunities of value to West Africa from South-East Asia include: intercropping rice with mung bean in lowland rainfed areas, the three-strata forage system within food-feed systems, rice-vegetable-ducks-fish integration, sloping agriculture land technology, integration of ruminants with tree crops and effective use
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    ABSTRACT: Animal traction has fairly developed in coton and groundnut growing areas of west Africa because of important equipment programmes. Its use does not meet the intensification standards defined by research. Farmers employing animal traction have generally increased their crop area, woman and child works, and transport needs. Animal traction has induced changes in cropping and livestock production systems. Its effects on farmers'income are difficult to evaluate yet often recognized as positive. But farmworks performed with animal traction remain rather poor in quality. Traditional farmstructure and the socioeconomic context have become less favourable to animal traction.
    Mécanisation des petites exploitations agricoles,, Rabat, Maroc, 13-17 mai 1996; 05/1996

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