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Evolution du rôle du bétail dans la gestion de la fertilité des terroirs sereer au Sénégal

Source: OAI

ABSTRACT Le système agraire sereer qui associe un élevage bovin sédentaire à un système de culture relativement intensif, faisait figure de modèle en terme d'aménagement de terroir et de gestion de la fertilité. Mais au cours des dernières décennies la pression démographique croissante, les contraintes écologiques aggravées et les nouvelles pratiques paysannes ont eu pour effet visibles la dégradation du paysage agraire et la désorganisation des sytèmes de culture. Les modes de gestion actuels de la fertilité ne sont pas reproductibles, faute de véritable apport externe compensant les prélèvements que subissent les superficies cultivées. C'est la conséquence la plus évidente de la déconnection entre les activités agricoles et l'élevage bovin que nous constatons. Les situations étudiées font apparaître de très grandes disparités à la fois entre les villages suivis et les années d'observation. Cette diversité dans les pratiques et les résultats s'oppose dorénavant à l'élaboration d'un modèle unique qui traduirait une évolution uniforme du système agraire à l'échelle régionale. (Résumé d'auteur)

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May 27, 2014