IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 17, NO. 1, JANUARY 2005115
Broad-Band Tunable All-Fiber Bandpass
Filter Based on Hollow Optical Fiber
and Long-Period Grating Pair
S. Choi, T. J. Eom, Y. Jung, B. H. Lee, Member, IEEE, Jhang W. Lee, and K. Oh, Member, IEEE
Abstract—We report a tunable all-fiber bandpass filter based on
a short hollow optical fiber serially concatenated between a pair of
long-period fiber gratings. With novel core mode blocking in the
hollow core fiber and its optimal design, the device showed a low
insertion loss of 1.5 dB and broad-band passband tuning range of
84.3 nm covering both
Index Terms—Hollow optical fibers (HOFs), long-period fiber
gratings (LPGs), optical fiber communications, optical fiber de-
vices, tunable bandpass filters (BPFs).
dynamically tunable channel selective components are being
intensively developed. As a band-rejection filter, long-period
fiber gratings (LPGs) have been utilized to flatten the gain of
the Er-doped fiber amplifier and to remove detrimental Stokes
orders in the Raman amplifier . The LPG pairs written
in series along a fiber have been further applied to optical
sensors  and optical encoding–decoding applications .
Recently, their applications have been further expanded into
all-fiber bandpass filters (BPFs) in order to take advantage of
relatively low manufacturing cost and simple design. BPFs
have been achieved by the use of phase-shifted LPGs  and
core mode blockers in the middle of two LPGs ,  or a
fiber acoustooptic tunable filter . Recently, the authors have
reported a fixedBPF based on a hollow optical fiber (HOF) core
mode blocker, which took advantages of the HOF segment in
effective core-mode to radiation-mode conversion, and minimal
perturbation of cladding mode .
In this letter, we report a tunable all-fiber BPF using a short
HOF core mode blocker fusion-spliced between a pair of LPGs
inscribed on B O -GeO codoped fiber with the lowest inser-
knowledge. Its design and fabrication arts are explained along
with discussion on the characteristics of output filter spectrum
and temperature tuning.
ITH INCREASING demands for flexible channel allo-
cation in wavelength-division-multiplexing networks,
Manuscript received June 11, 2004; revised August 5, 2004. This work was
supported in part by the KOSEF through the UFON Research Center, in part by
the MOE through the BK21 program, and in part by ITRC-CHOAN program.
S. Choi is with the LG Electronics PRC, Kyunggi-do 451-713, Republic of
Korea (e-mail: email@example.com).
T. J. Eom, Y. Jung, B. H. Lee, J. W. Lee, and K. Oh are with the
Departmentof Informationand Communications,
of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712, Republic of
Korea (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org.;
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/LPT.2004.838301
HOF region fusion-spliced with a pair of LPGs and the cross section of HOF.
Schematic diagram of a tunable HOF-BPF. Two micrographs show the
II. OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF TUNABLE BANDPASS
FILTER BASED ON HOF
The proposed tunable BPF is schematically illustrated in
Fig. 1. The device consists of a short HOF segment serially
concatenated between an identical LPG pair. The first LPG
couples light from the fundamental (HE ) core mode to the
phase-matching cladding modes. A hollow core mode blocker
rejects the core modes that are not resonant with LPG pair.
The cladding modes from the first LPG, in contrast to the core
mode, further propagate along the cladding of a short hollow
segment. The identical second LPG couples back the cladding
modes into the core mode at the resonant wavelength. After
passing the concatenated LPG-HOF-LPG structure, this device
has a passband characteristic at the resonant wavelength of two
identical LPGs. A hollow fiber segment is an ideal core mode
blocker due to its broad-band operation for conversion of the
core mode to radiation mode and perturbation in the cladding
mode propagation can be efficiently minimized by designing
appropriate hole size and segment length.
In order to achieve a lower insertion loss and provide a wider
tuning range, a proper design of HOF segment and a choice of
photosensitive fiber are required. The HOF preform was fab-
ricated by collapsing a silica substrate tube maintaining a cir-
cular air hole at the center using the modified chemical vapor
deposition process, and then hollow fibers were drawn by con-
trolling the furnace temperature and drawing tension. The HOF
m (hole/outer diameter) and length of 0.5 mm was
1041-1135/$20.00 © 2005 IEEE
116 IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 17, NO. 1, JANUARY 2005
used the air-hole diameter of 6 m , and it is experimentally
found that the core-mode blocking efficiency reaches its max-
imum when the hole diameter of HOF nearly matches the core
diameter of the LPG fiber where it is spliced to. In this experi-
ment, LPG fiber had the core diameter of
ingly, HOF hole diameter was set to 8
no guiding structure in the HOF so that the nonresonant wave-
lengths after the first LPG are effectively leaked to radiation
modes. The HOF section between a pair of LPGs and its cross
section measured by charge-coupled device camera are shown
in the lower part of Fig. 1. The length of HOF was cleaved to
the length of 0.5 mm using a microscope installed over a me-
chanical fiber cleaver. Then HOF was fusion-spliced with one
LPG fiber using a shorter arc duration and lower arc power than
those ofstandard single-modefiber(SMF)splicing. Confirming
ilar arc conditions. The distance between the two LPG centers
including HOF was less than 25 mm and the total length of the
device was less than 45 mm, suitable for compact packaging.
The LPG pair was fabricated using B–Ge-codoped core SMFs
by irradiating KrF excimer laser at 248 nm over an amplitude
and GeO were optimized for maximum thermal tuning range.
The fabricated LPG pair had four stopbands within the spec-
tral range of 1.3–1.6
m. The length of LPG was
nicrome-wire of 0.5 mm diameter is coiled around the concate-
nated fibers to thermally tune the passband channels of BPFs.
A capillary tube of 5
7 mm was added to protect this device.
Temperature controller was used to automatically adjust tem-
perature by the sensor imbedded near the heating wire.
8 m and, accord-
m. Note that there is
20 mm. A
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The output transmission spectra of the LPG pair and
HOF-BPF are shown in Fig. 2. They were measured by using
an optical spectrum analyzer and a white light source. Fig. 2(a)
shows the transmission spectrum of an identical LPG pair,
where HE , HE , HE , and HE
of LPGs corresponding to resonant wavelengths of 1365.4,
1393.9, 1448.8, and 1549.6 nm, respectively. The output
spectrum of passband channels in the HOF-BPF is shown in
Fig. 2(b). From these results, it was confirmed that HE , HE ,
HE , and HE
cladding modes excited at the first LPG were
coupled back to the fundamental core mode after the second
LPG, resulting in the passband characteristics. The nonresonant
wavelengths were suppressed more than 20 dB (99%) over
300 nm (1.3–1.6
m) and the full-width at half-maximum (at
C) showed 7.3, 9.3, and 15 nm at 1393.9, 1448.8, and
1549.6 nm, respectively. The low insertion loss less than 1.5 dB
was measured, which is more than 3-dB improvement com-
pared with prior reports. Effective matching of cladding modes
over the HOF and low splicing loss between the LPG and HOF
are attributed to the lowest insertion loss ever reported.
The tuning characteristic of passband channels with re-
spect to temperature variation is shown in Fig. 3(a). For the
increasing temperature,passbandswere shiftedtoshorterwave-
lengths, which is opposite to the red shift in germanosilicate
core fibers and it is attributed to thermooptic response of the
represent cladding modes
composed of B–Ge-codoped core fibers.
Transmission output spectra of HOF-BPF using the LPG pair
B–Ge-codoped silica core fiber. The broad-band tuning range
of 84.3 nm, from 1465.3 to 1549.6 nm covering both the short
( ) and conventional ( ) band, was observed at the passband
that corresponds to the HE
cladding mode coupling, for the
temperature range from 25 C to 215 C. The temperature was
measured at the sensor imbedded at the protecting capillary.
The location of peak wavelength of passbands are shown as a
function of temperature in Fig. 3(b). Each transmission peak
linearly shifted showing a negative slope (slope
0.34, 0.37, and0.44 nm/ C).
Shift of resonance peaks in LPGs in conventional SMFs can
be controlled either to the red shift or blue shift by utilizing
modal dispersion of higher order cladding mode relative to that
of the fundamental core mode , . In this letter, we focus on
temperature-dependent material dispersion in the shift of LPG
resonance by addition of boron in the fiber core. The unique
tuning direction and wide tuning range in this proposed de-
vice are explained by the temperature dependence,
in the B–Ge codoped silica core, where
by the following phase matching condition:
is the peak reso-
fective indexes of the fundamental core mode and the HE
cladding mode, respectively. The derivative of (1) with respect
to temperature is expressed as
is the grating period,and are the ef-
CHOI et al.: BROAD-BAND TUNABLE ALL-FIBER BPF BASED ON HOF AND LONG-PERIOD GRATING PAIR 117
temperature and (b) wavelength tuning slope with respect to temperature in a
B–Ge-codoped core fiber.
(a) Measured transmission spectrum of passband channel according to
From (2), the temperature dependence of grating period
is negligible when compared with the temperature dependence
of refractive index of the material,
can be simplified as the following:
In the case of Ge-doped core fiber,
, resulting in
codoped core fiber,
bands of BPFs using B–Ge-codoped core fibers move to shorter
wavelengths as temperature increases, and the magnitude of
shift can be controlled by adjusting doping concentration of
boron relative to germanium in the core .
is larger than
, while in the B–Ge-
is smaller than
, . For this reason, pass-
J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber grating as band-rejection filter,” J. Lightw.
Technol., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 58–65, Jan. 1996.
 B. H. Lee and J. Nishii, “Bending sensitivity of in-series long-period
fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 20, pp. 1624–1626, Oct. 1998.
 S. J. Kim, T. J. Eom, B. H. Lee, and C. S. Park, “Optical temporal en-
coding/decoding of short pulses using cascaded long-period fiber grat-
ings,” Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 23, pp. 3034–3040, Nov. 2003.
 F. Bakhti and P. Sansonetti, “Realization of low back-reflection, wide-
band fiber bandpass filters using phase shifted long-period fiber grat-
ings,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC’97) Conf., Dallas,
TX, Feb. 1997, Paper FB4.
 D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, “All-fiber bandpass filter
with adjustable transmission using cladding-mode coupling,” IEEE
Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1590–1592, Nov. 1998.
 Y. G. Hand, S. H. Kim, S. B. Lee, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “The de-
velopment of core mode blocker with H -loaded Ge-B codoped fibers,”
Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 15, pp. 1107–1108, Jul. 2003.
 T. E. Dimmick, D. A. Satorius, and G. L. Burdge, “All-fiber acousto-
optic tunable bandpass filter,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication
(OOFC 2001) Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2001, Paper WJ3.
 S. Choi, T. J. Eom, J. W. Yu, B. H. Lee, and K. Oh, “Novel all-fiber
band-pass filter based on hollow optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol.
Lett., vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 1701–1703, Dec. 2002.
 K. Shima, K. Himeno, T. Sakai, S. Okude, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi,
“A novel temperature-insensitive long-period fiber grating using a
boron-codoped-germanosilicate-core fiber,” in Proc. Optical Fiber
Communication (OFC’97) Conf., Dallas, TX, Feb. 1997, Paper FB2.
 N. Bandsal and R. Doremus, Handbook of Glass Properties.
York: Academic, 1986.
 Y. J. Kim, U. C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, “Measurement of refractive-index
variation with temperature by use of long-period fiber grating,” Opt.
Lett., vol. 27, no. 15, pp. 1297–1299, Aug. 2002.
 K. Oh, Y. G. Hand, H. S. Seo, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, J. N. Jang, and
M. S. Kim, “Compositional dependence of the temperature sensitivity
in a long period grating imprinted on GeO -B O co-doped core silica
fibers,” OSA Trends Opt. Photon., vol. 33, pp. 243–245, 2000.