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# 1.5-mW single-mode operation of wafer-fused 1550-nm VCSELs

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EnviroScopY SA Switzerland, Vaud, Switzerland
(Impact Factor: 2.18). 06/2004; 16(5):1230 - 1232. DOI: 10.1109/LPT.2004.826099
Source: IEEE Xplore

ABSTRACT We demonstrate 1.5-μm waveband wafer-fused InGaAlAs-InP-AlGaAs-GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) emitting high single-mode power of 1.5 mW at room temperature with sidemode suppression ratio of over 30 dB and a full-width at half-maximum far field angle of 9°. These devices have thermal resistance value below 1.5 K/mW and are emitting 0.2 mW at 70°C. VCSELs with a wavelength span of 40-nm emission are produced from the same active cavity material, which shows the potential of realizing multiple-wavelength VCSEL arrays.

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• "To further increase the 3-dB bandwidth of S21 response, larger D-factor is desirable, which can be achieved by reducing the aperture size, fine tuning the HCG reflectivity, and increasing the strain in quantum wells. Given that HCG is just a replacement of the reflectors compared to DBR VCSELS, HCG- VCSELs should have the same high-speed modulation potential as other DBR VCSELs [4]–[6], yet further improvement of design and process is needed to extend the bandwidth. Fig. 13 shows the eye diagrams and BER curves of a direct On–Off-key (OOK) modulated TE-HCG-VCSEL. "
##### Article: Long-Wavelength VCSEL Using High-Contrast Grating
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ABSTRACT: Recent advances in high-contrast grating (HCG) vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) emitting at 1550 nm is reported in this paper. The novel near-wavelength HCG has an ultrathin structure and broadband reflectivity. It enables a monolithic, simple fabrication process for realizing InP-based VCSELs emitting at ~1550 nm. We report 2.4-mW single-mode output under continuous-wave operation at 15°C. We show that, despite broadened by the Brownian motion, the HCG-VCSEL has a total linewidth of 60 MHz or a coherent length of 5 m in air, and an intrinsic linewidth <;20 MHz. Transmission of directly modulated 10 Gbps over 100-km dispersion-compensated single-mode fiber is demonstrated. Tunable HCG-VCSEL is demonstrated with the HCG integrated with a micro-electro-mechanical structure. Continuous wavelength tuning as wide as 26.3 nm is achieved. The tunable VCSEL was used as a source for external modulation for 40-Gbps differential-phase-shift-keyed signal and transmitted over 100-km dispersion-compensated link with negligible power penalty.
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 07/2013; 19(4):1701311-1701311. DOI:10.1109/JSTQE.2013.2246780 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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• "Concerning more specifically telecommunication-oriented purposes, VCSELs in the longwavelength emission bands have been so far mainly targeted for optical interconnects [5], metrorange links [6], coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) [7], and dense WDM passive optical networking (PON) architectures [8]. Beyond the relevant interest for aforementioned applications, the inherent limit of microelectronics circuits and systems to offer wider modulation bandwidth combined with acceptable power dissipation is going to be attained in the near future, owing to the relentlessly growing demand for "
##### Article: Thermal, Modal, and Polarization Features of Double Photonic Crystal Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers
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ABSTRACT: Long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) for photonics-on-complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) integration based on a double set of $\hbox{Si/SiO}_{2}$ photonic crystal mirrors (PCMs) have been recently fabricated. In the present communication, an extensive overview about modal, polarization, and thermal features of optically pumped demonstrators is presented. Capable of operating continuous-wave up to 43 $^{ \circ}\hbox{C}$ at low thresholds, such VCSELs show single-mode polarization-stable operation at 1.55-$\mu\hbox{m}$ with uncooled output powers in excess of 0.4 mW. This paper aims at singling out notably the device optical features arising from the excellent flexibility of the photonic architecture used. Noticeably, the light molding obtained through the engineering of $\hbox{Si/SiO}_{2}$ photonic crystals allows for a tailored modal selection and full polarization control. Furthermore, the high-throughput cost-effective Si-based process technology developed is ideally well-suited for perspective industrial development.
IEEE Photonics Journal 04/2012; 4(2):399-410. DOI:10.1109/JPHOT.2012.2189378 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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• "The devices used in our experiments are double intracavity contact VCSELs at 1.3µm [6] and 1.55µm [7] wavelengths. Their fabrication consists of an InGaAlAs quantum wells active region, a tunnel junction and AlGaAs- GaAs DBRs bonded to the active region by wafer-fusion. "
##### Conference Paper: Efficient optoelectronic de-embedding for VCSEL intrinsic response extraction
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ABSTRACT: In this present work, we propose a new method to remove the parasitics contribution to the VCSEL chip response, in order to obtain the intrinsic transmission behavior. It has been observed that the S<sub>11</sub> reflection coefficient of the chip is only due to the electrical access to the chip composed by the transmission line and cavity contacts. This allows us to decompose the chip into two cascaded subsystems representing the electrical access and the optical cavity respectively. An equivalent electrical circuit is developed for the electrical access behavior and, combined with the transfer matrix formalism, it becomes possible to remove the parasitics contribution from the measured S<sub>21</sub> response. In this way, the intrinsic 3-dB bandwidth of the VCSEL can be determined.
Microwave Photonics, 2009. MWP '09. International Topical Meeting on; 11/2009