The newt ortholog of CD59 is implicated in proximodistal identity during amphibian limb regeneration
ABSTRACT The proximodistal identity of a newt limb regeneration blastema is respecified by exposure to retinoic acid, but its molecular basis is unclear. We identified from a differential screen the cDNA for Prod 1, a gene whose expression in normal and regenerating limbs is regulated by proximodistal location and retinoic acid: Prod 1 is the newt ortholog of CD59. Prod 1/CD59 was found to be located at the cell surface with a GPI anchor which is cleaved by PIPLC. A proximal newt limb blastema engulfs a distal blastema after juxtaposition in culture, and engulfment is specifically blocked by PIPLC, and by affinity-purified antibodies to two distinct Prod 1/CD59 peptides. Prod 1 is therefore a cell surface protein implicated in the local cell-cell interactions mediating positional identity.
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ABSTRACT: One only needs to see a salamander regrowing a lost limb to become fascinated by regeneration. However, the lack of robust axonal regeneration models for which good cellular and molecular tools exist has hampered prog-ress in the field. Nevertheless, the nervous system has been revealed to be an excellent model to investigate regenera-tion. There are conspicuous differences in neuroregenera-tion capacity between amphibia and warm-blooded animals, as well as between the central and the peripheral nervous systems in mammals. Exploration of such discrepancies led to significant discoveries on the basic tenets of neuroregen-eration in the last two decades, identifying several positive and negative regulators of axonal regeneration. Implications of these findings to the comprehension of mammalian re-generation and to the development of spinal cord injury therapies are also addressed.Molecular Neurobiology 06/2012; · 5.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transgenesis promises a powerful means for assessing gene function during amphibian limb regeneration. This approach is complicated, however, by the need for embryonic appendage development to proceed unimpeded despite the genetic alterations one wishes to test later in the context of regeneration. Achieving conditional gene regulation in this amphibian has not proved to be as straightforward as in many other systems. In this report we describe a unique method for obtaining temporal control over exogenous gene expression in the axolotl. Based on technology derived from the Escherichia coli Lac operon, uninduced transgenes are kept in a repressed state by the binding of constitutively expressed Lac repressor protein (LacI) to operator sequences within the expression construct. Addition of a lactose analog, IPTG, to the swimming water of the axolotl is sufficient for the sugar to be taken up by cells, where it binds the LacI protein, thereby inducing expression of the repressed gene. We use this system to demonstrate an in vivo role for thrombospondin-4 in limb regeneration. This inducible system will allow for systematic analysis of phenotypes at defined developmental or regenerative time points. The tight regulation and robustness of gene induction combined with the simplicity of this strategy will prove invaluable for studying many aspects of axolotl biology.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2012; 109(34):13662-7. · 9.68 Impact Factor
Article: The aneurogenic limb identifies developmental cell interactions underlying vertebrate limb regeneration.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The removal of the neural tube in salamander embryos allows the development of nerve-free aneurogenic limbs. Limb regeneration is normally nerve-dependent, but the aneurogenic limb regenerates without nerves and becomes nerve-dependent after innervation. The molecular basis for these tissue interactions is unclear. Anterior Gradient (AG) protein, previously shown to rescue regeneration of denervated limbs and to act as a growth factor for cultured limb blastemal cells, is expressed throughout the larval limb epidermis and is down-regulated by innervation. In an aneurogenic limb, the level of AG protein remains high in the epidermis throughout development and regeneration, but decreases after innervation following transplantation to a normal host. Aneurogenic epidermis also shows a fivefold difference in secretory gland cells, which express AG protein. The persistently high expression of AG in the epithelial cells of an aneurogenic limb ensures that regeneration is independent of the nerve. These findings provide an explanation for this classical problem, and identify regulation of the epidermal niche by innervation as a distinctive developmental mechanism that initiates the nerve dependence of limb regeneration. The absence of this regulation during anuran limb development might suggest that it evolved in relation to limb regeneration.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2011; 108(33):13588-93. · 9.68 Impact Factor