Thermal testing on reconfigurable computers

Univ. Autonoma de Madrid
IEEE Design and Test of Computers (Impact Factor: 1.62). 02/2000; 17(1):84 - 91. DOI: 10.1109/54.825679
Source: IEEE Xplore


Ring-oscillators are useful to monitor the thermal status of
reconfigurable computers. No analog parts exist, and the sensors can be
dynamically inserted, moved, or eliminated


Available from: Javier Garrido, Apr 07, 2015
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    • "This method is much faster because continuous temperature ramp is applied to the sampled sensors, while simultaneously logging its output and that of the reference sensor. [8] calibrated an FPGA digital temperature sensor by recording and comparing the output of the counter value with that of a temperature chamber over an entire range of temperature. An accurate technique, however, can be time consuming and an expensive procedure if many sensors are deployed. "
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    ABSTRACT: Digital temperature sensing sometimes suffer inaccuracy as a result of Vdd variation generating noise within a digital temperature sensor, built around ring oscillators. Thus, noise generated affects ring oscillator's frequency. In this paper, a delay-based digital temperature sensor is formulated, implemented and evaluated on a Field Programmable Gate Array Chip. The temperature sensor is realized using Very High-Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language and synthesized in Quartus II. The realized digital circuit was implemented on an Altera DE3 board with a Stratix III Field Programmable Gate Array chip. Data obtained was analysed using Least-Square interpolation method to determine the effect of voltage drop. The result is a resource efficient digital temperature sensor sensitive to variation in Vdd less than 3.3V. A measurement error of −2.3°C ∼ +2.1°C was obtained at Vdd of 3.3V and −2.7°C ∼ +1.7°C when Vdd equal 1.5V for a temperature range within 40°C ∼ 120°C.
    Embedded Computing (MECO), 2015 4th Mediterranean Conference, 14-1; 06/2015
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    • "Ring oscillators (RO) are widely used as voltage controlled oscillators (VCO) in high performance integrated circuits as the fundamental block for frequency synthesizers, clock recov­ ery circuits, and clock distribution networks. The application of ring oscillators is not limited to VCOs, as ROs are used for on-chip thermal sensors [4], [5] and test structures to measure process variability [6]. The versatility of a RO is attributed to a simple CMOS implementation with no passive components, which reduces the occupied silicon area. "
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    ABSTRACT: An advantage of 3-D integrated circuits is the possibility to integrate heterogeneous technologies on separate device planes. The device planes are fabricated in different technologies operating at distinct power supply voltages. A mechanism to detect and set the power supply voltage of each domain within each device plane of a 3-D IC is described. The detection of the power supply voltage is achieved through the placement of a ring oscillator circuit in each voltage domain. The current is supplied at the set voltage to the device plane through dedicated power modules comprising of a frequency to voltage converter and a dependent voltage source placed on a dedicated power plane. The functionality of the supply voltage detection and delivery circuits is verified through SPICE simulation of the device plane (22 nm technology) and power plane (45 nm technology). The implementation of the proposed circuits for 3-D IC design facilitate a plug-and-play approach for the integration of heterogeneous technologies.
    IEEE International System-on-Chip (SoC) Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada; 09/2014
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    • "This effect on temperature sensors accuracy could be mitigated at the expense of size and power consumption, when the number of inverters in a delay line is increased. Traditionally, inverter-delay temperature sensors measure temperature by timing its oscillation frequency against a reference clock and the number of oscillations is stored by a digital counter [2]. The period of oscillation is given in equation 1 and equation 2 states the frequency of oscillation. "

    DSD/; 08/2014
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