IEEE Task Force Report: Brittle Fracture in Nonceramic Insulators
ABSTRACT A description of the composite insulator brittle fracture phenomenon suitable to allow correct diagnosis of a failure is provided. The paper reports on the number of brittle fractures that have occurred around the world and contains specific empirical data surrounding composite insulator brittle fractures in the United States. It also includes several case studies of in service failures to inform the reader of the diversity of initiating causes. The current state of knowledge on the brittle fracture mechanism is presented. Based on what was learned during the study, possible actions that can be taken by manufacturers and users to reduce frequency of occurrence are suggested.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Ralf. Hartings, Mar 31, 2015
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ABSTRACT: A majority of utilities conduct maintenance of transmission line components based on the results of routine visual inspection. The inspection is normally done by inspectors who detect defects by visually checking transmission line components either from the air (in helicopters), from the ground (by using high-powered binoculars) or from the top of the structure (by climbing the structure). The main problems with visual inspection of transmission lines are that the determination of the defects varies depending on the inspectors' knowledge and experience and that the defects are often reported qualitatively using vague and linguistic terms such as "medium crack", "heavy rust", "small deflection". As a result of these drawbacks, there is a large variance and inconsistency in defect reporting (which, in time, makes it difficult for the utility to monitor the condition of the components) leading to ineffective or wrong maintenance decisions. The use of inspection guides has not been able to fully address these uncertainties. This thesis reports on the application of a visual inspection methodology that is aimed at addressing the above-mentioned problems. A knowledge-based Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) is designed using Matlab's Fuzzy Logic Toolbox as part of the methodology and its application is demonstrated on utility visual inspection practice of porcelain cap and pin insulators. The FIS consists of expert-specified input membership functions (representing various insulator defect levels), output membership functions (indicating the overall conditions of the insulator) and IF-THEN rules. Consistency in the inspection results is achieved because the condition of the insulator is inferred using the same knowledge-base in the FIS rather than by individual inspectors. The output of the FIS is also used in a mathematical model that is developed to suggest appropriate component replacement date. It is hoped that the methodology that is introduced in this research will help utilities achieve better maintenance management of transmission line assets.
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ABSTRACT: This paper describes water diffusion into and electrical testing of unidirectional glass reinforced polymer (GRP) composite rods used as load bearing components in high voltage composite (non-ceramic) insulators. The tests were performed following ANSI standard C29.11 Section 7.4.2 that can be used to evaluate electrical properties of composites. The unidirectional composite rod materials based on either E-glass or ECR-glass fibers with modified polyester, epoxy and vinyl ester resins were investigated. Two types of ECR-glass fibers were considered, namely high and low seed (voids). The effects of composite surface sandblasting, mechanical pre-loading and nitric acid exposure on the electrical properties of the composites were studied. In addition to the required data of the ANSI standard, the specimen mass gain was also measured after boiling for 100 h. Most importantly, there was no correlation found between the mass gain and the leakage current for different composites. The materials with high seed ECR-glass fibers had much higher leakage currents and they absorbed less moisture than the composites based on either the low seed ECR-glass fibers or E-glass fibers. It was shown in this work that different types of sandblasting, as well as mechanical preloading with and without acid exposure had a negligible effect on the leakage currents and water mass gain of the composite specimens.IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation 07/2004; DOI:10.1109/TDEI.2004.1306729 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It was postulated by J. Montesinos et al. (see ibid., vol.9, p.236-43, 2002), based on experimental evidence, that brittle fracture failures of composite (non-ceramic) HV insulators could be caused by water and mechanical stresses. It was also claimed therein that the brittle fracture process was more likely to happen with water than acids. This postulation could be of major importance as its ramifications might affect the entire composite insulator technology and, in particular, the usage of glass fiber polymer matrix composites in HV applications. Such an important statement should not be left without an independent verification. Therefore, attempts have been made in this research to initiate this process in unidirectional E-glass/modified polyester and E-glass/vinyl ester composites, used in non-ceramic insulators, by subjecting them to water under four-point bending conditions. This was done to independently verify the main conclusion of J. Montesinos et al. that water may be more damaging to unidirectional E-glass/polymer composites than acids. It has been clearly shown in this work that water, in the absence of electrical field, cannot cause stress corrosion cracking of unidirectional E-glass/polymer composites and thus brittle fracture of composite non-ceramic insulators. Thus the main results of J. Montesinos et al. could not be independently reproduced.IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation 07/2004; DOI:10.1109/TDEI.2004.1306730 · 1.28 Impact Factor