Confirmatory factor analysis of the Thought Occurrence Questionnaire for Sport (TOQS) among adolescent athletes

Anxiety Stress & Coping (Impact Factor: 1.97). 09/2005; 18(3). DOI: 10.1080/10615800500134266
Source: OAI


There is an inherent link between theory and measurement suggesting that validation of measures should be the first stage of theory testing. The aim of the present study was to cross-validate the factorial validity of the Thought Occurrence Questionnaire for Sport for use among adolescent athletes. National standard young athletes (Individual N_/204; Team N_/360) completed the TOQS questionnaire. Single-sample and multisample confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the psychometric integrity of the hypothesized three-factor correlated model. Multisample results demonstrated invariance for factor loadings and correlations between individual and team athletes. Internal consistency coefficients were over the .70 criterion for acceptability. Findings lend support to previous validation studies conducted on samples of adult athletes and suggest that the TOQS provides an equally valid measure for use among adolescent athletes. It is suggested that the TOQS can be used to investigate theoretical issues related to cognitive interference during competition.

Download full-text


Available from: Alan Michael Nevill,

Click to see the full-text of:

Article: Confirmatory factor analysis of the Thought Occurrence Questionnaire for Sport (TOQS) among adolescent athletes

0 B

See full-text
    • "These thoughts and worries draw attention away from primary task execution leading to hampered performance. Anecdotal evidence (e.g., Gerrard, 2007) and studies examining athletes' thoughts during competition (e.g., Hatzigeorgiadis, 2002; Hatzigeorgiadis & Biddle, 2000, 2001; Lane, Harwood, & Nevill, 2005; Wilson & Smith, 2007), seem to suggest that, rather than skill-focused attention, all kinds of distracting thoughts and worries naturally occur when athletes perform under pressure. However, only thoughts unrelated to task execution (e.g., performance worries and task-irrelevant thoughts) were included in the questionnaires employed, while task-related thoughts (e.g., skill-focused attention) were not examined. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Choking under pressure in sport has been explained by either explicit attention to skill execution (self-focus theories), or attention to performance worries (distraction theories). The aim of the present study was to find out which focus of attention occurs most often when expert athletes perform under pressure. Two retrospective methods were employed, namely, verbal reports and concept mapping. In the verbal reports, 70 expert athletes indicated their main focus of attention when performing under high pressure in competition. For concept mapping seven expert athletes generated statements about their focus of attention in such high-pressure situations. These statements were clustered and rated on how often they occurred and how important they were for choking. Both methods revealed that under pressure attention of expert athletes was often focused on worries and hardly ever on movement execution. Furthermore, the athletes reported that they focused attention on external factors and that they reverted to positive monitoring in an attempt to maintain performance. These results are more in line with distraction theories than self-focus theories, suggesting that attention to performance worries rather than to skill execution generally explains choking.
    Anxiety, stress, and coping 01/2011; 24(1):59-73. DOI:10.1080/10615806.2010.481331 · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present investigation was to develop an instrument assessing the content and the structure of athletes' self-talk. The study was conducted in three stages. In the first stage, a large pool of items was generated and content analysis was used to organize the items into categories. Furthermore, item-content relevance analysis was conducted to help identifying the most appropriate items. In Stage 2, the factor structure of the instrument was examined by a series of exploratory factor analyses (Sample A: N = 507), whereas in Stage 3 the results of the exploratory factor analysis were retested through confirmatory factor analyses (Sample B: N = 766) and at the same time concurrent validity were assessed. The analyses revealed eight factors, four positive (psych up, confidence, anxiety control and instruction), three negative (worry, disengagement and somatic fatigue) and one neutral (irrelevant thoughts). The findings of the study provide evidence regarding the multidimensionality of self-talk, suggesting that ASTQS seems a psychometrically sound instrument that could help us developing cognitive-behavioral theories and interventions to examine and modify athletes' self-talk.
    Sport Psychologist 06/2009; 23(2-23, 233-251). · 0.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Questions about the international reliability and validity of aspects of psychopathy have been raised for adults, but hardly considered when applying the constructs to children. Our aim was to compare the psychometrics of a new instrument to measure psychopathic traits in children between two countries - the Netherlands and Greece. We also tested the hypothesis that, in both countries, both narcissistic-egocentric and callous-unemotional dimensions would be related to observed behavioural disorders. The Social and Emotional Detachment Questionnaire was used to assess narcissistic-egocentric and callous-unemotional dimensions of personality in representative national and community samples of 4-12-year-old children in the Netherlands and Greece, respectively. Parents filled in the questionnaires anonymously and also provided ratings of conduct disorders. A two-dimensional construct of the psychopathic syndrome depicting, respectively, narcissistic and unemotional traits was reliable and valid in both countries, although there was considerable correlation between these two dimensions, which we designated 'social detachment' and 'emotional detachment', respectively. In both countries, the composite of social and emotional detachment was associated with aggressive and antisocial conduct disorders. The reliability, validity and predictive value of this questionnaire must be tested further, for example, through multiple informants and longitudinally, but our findings that the tool performs robustly in two very different European countries is encouraging in terms of its potential value as a clinical screening tool and a tool for furthering the understanding of serious behavioural disorders in children.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health 07/2009; 19(3):178-92. DOI:10.1002/cbm.732 · 1.28 Impact Factor
Show more