Induction of a non-encephalitogenic type 2 T helper-cell autoimmune responsein multiple sclerosis after administration of an altered peptide ligand ina placebo-controlled, randomized phase II trial
ABSTRACT In this ‘double-blind’, randomized, placebo-controlled phase II trial, we compared an altered peptide ligand of myelin basic protein with placebo, evaluating their safety and influence on magnetic resonance imaging in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis. A safety board suspended the trial because of hypersensitivity reactions in 9% of the patients. There were no increases in either clinical relapses or in new enhancing lesions in any patient, even those with hypersensitivity reactions. Secondary analysis of those patients completing the study showed that the volume and number of enhancing lesions were reduced at a dose of 5 mg. There was also a regulatory type 2 T helper-cell response to altered peptide ligand that cross-reacted with the native peptide.
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ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which myelin proteins have been implicated as autoantigens recognized by pathogenic autoreactive T cells. To study the relationship between human myelin basic protein (hMBP) and HLA alleles associated to MS susceptibility, such as DRB1*1501, the binding of synthetic peptides spanning the entire hMBP sequence to 10 purified HLA-DR molecules was determined. All the hMBP peptides tested showed binding affinity for at least one of the DR molecules analyzed, but three hMBP peptides, included in sequences 13-32, 84-103, and 144-163 were found capable of binding to three or more DR molecules. The hMBP peptide 84-103 was the most degenerate in binding, in that it bound to 9 out of 10 DR molecules tested. Interestingly, it bound with highest affinity to DRB1*1501 molecules. To correlate the binding pattern of hMBP peptides to HLA class II molecules with their recognition by T cells, 61 hMBP-specific T cell lines (TCL) were established from the peripheral blood of 20 MS patients, who were homozygous, heterozygous, or negative for DRB1*1501. Analysis of hMBP epitopes recognized by these TCL and their HLA restriction demonstrated a very good correlation between binding data and T cell proliferation to hMBP peptides. Although virtually all hMBP peptides tested could be recognized by at least one TCL from MS patients, three immunodominant T cell epitopes were apparent among the TCL examined, corresponding exactly to the hMBP peptides capable of binding to several DR molecules. No major difference could be detected in the recognition of immunodominant hMBP peptides by TCL from DRB1*1501 positive or negative MS patients. These results have implications for the role of hMBP as relevant autoantigen, and of DRB1*1501 as susceptibility allele in MS.Journal of Clinical Investigation 03/1993; 91(2):616-28. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis is thought to be an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system mediated by T cells specific for a myelin antigen. Myelin basic protein has been studied as a potential autoantigen in the disease because of its role as an encephalitogen in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and post-viral encephalomyelitis and because of the presence in the blood of multiple sclerosis patients of in vivo-activated T cells reactive to myelin basic protein. Immune involvement in multiple sclerosis has been further suggested by the association with the major histocompatibility complex class II phenotype DR2, DQw1. To define the T-cell specificity toward myelin basic protein, 15,824 short-term T-cell lines were established from multiple sclerosis subjects, subjects with other neurological diseases, and normal controls. Here we report a higher frequency of T-cell lines reactive with a DR2-associated region of myelin basic protein between residues 84-102 in patients with multiple sclerosis compared with controls. A second region, identified between residues 143-168, was recognized equally in multiple sclerosis patients and controls and was associated with the DRw11 phenotype. These DR2 and DRw11 associations were also observed among T-cell lines generated from family members of a multiple sclerosis patient. The immunodominant 84-102 peptide from myelin basic protein was both DR2- and DQw1-restricted among different T-cell lines. These results raise the possibility that this immunodominant region may be encephalitogenic in some DR2+ individuals.Nature 08/1990; 346(6280):183-7. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We demonstrate that cognate peptide ligands altered at T cell receptor (TCR) contact residues and bound to class II major histocompatability complex can change the cytokine pattern of mature T cell clones. Myelin basic protein peptide 85-99-reactive Th0 T cell clones were stimulated with altered peptide ligands, which acted both as TCR antagonist and induced new mRNA synthesis and protein secretion of TGF-beta 1, while no longer inducing mRNA synthesis or protein secretion of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN gamma. The modified peptides failed to induce a detectable calcium flux, p56lck activation, or thymidine incorporation, yet triggered nearly equal amounts of IL-4 secretion in the presence of ionomycin. Antigen-induced modulation of T cell cytokine secretion may be important in regulating the immune response.Immunity 05/1995; 2(4):373-80. · 19.80 Impact Factor