Induction of a non-encephalitogenic type 2 T helper-cell autoimmune responsein multiple sclerosis after administration of an altered peptide ligand ina placebo-controlled, randomized phase II trial
ABSTRACT In this ‘double-blind’, randomized, placebo-controlled phase II trial, we compared an altered peptide ligand of myelin basic protein with placebo, evaluating their safety and influence on magnetic resonance imaging in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis. A safety board suspended the trial because of hypersensitivity reactions in 9% of the patients. There were no increases in either clinical relapses or in new enhancing lesions in any patient, even those with hypersensitivity reactions. Secondary analysis of those patients completing the study showed that the volume and number of enhancing lesions were reduced at a dose of 5 mg. There was also a regulatory type 2 T helper-cell response to altered peptide ligand that cross-reacted with the native peptide.
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ABSTRACT: Allergic sensitisation usually begins early in life. The number of allergens a patient is sensitised to can increase over time and the development of additional allergic conditions is increasingly recognised. Targeting allergic disease in childhood is thus likely to be the most efficacious means of reducing the overall burden of allergic disease. Specific immunotherapy involves administering protein allergen to tolerise allergen reactive CD4+ T cells, thought key in driving allergic responses. Yet specific immunotherapy risks allergic reactions including anaphylaxis as a consequence of preformed allergen-specific IgE antibodies binding to the protein, subsequent cross-linking and mast cell degranulation. CD4+ T cells direct their responses to short "immunodominant" peptides within the allergen. Such peptides can be given therapeutically to induce T cell tolerance without facilitating IgE cross-linking. Peptide immunotherapy (PIT) offers attractive treatment potential for allergic disease. However, PIT has not yet been shown to be effective in children. This review discusses the immunological mechanisms implicated in PIT and briefly covers outcomes from adult PIT trials. This provides a context for discussion of the challenges for the application of PIT, both generally and more specifically in relation to children.Clinical and translational allergy. 01/2011; 1(1):13.
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ABSTRACT: The triggering of autoimmunity by infection or immunization is often blamed on antigenic mimicry. But the concept of antigen mimicry impinges on our understanding of adaptive immunity in general, and not only on autoimmunity. Here are some thoughts about the consequences of immune mimicry.Journal of Autoimmunity 06/2001; 16(3):337-40. · 8.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have previously described an analog peptide of type II collagen (CII) that can suppress collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). This analog peptide represents CII(245-270), the immunodominant epitope of CII, but with substitutions at 260, 261, and 263 - CII(245-270) (A(260), B(261), and N(263)) (A9). To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for suppression, we used mice transgenic for a collagen-specific T cell receptor (TCR). When we found that APCs pulsed with A9 failed to induce T cell phosphorylation of TCR-zeta and ZAP-70, we explored alternative signaling pathways. We determined that A9 instead induced phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). The importance of Syk was confirmed by the use of chemical Syk inhibitors, which blocked both cytokine secretion and activation of GATA-3 mediated by peptide A9. In summary, T cells use an alternative pathway in response to A9 that involves Syk. This novel T cell pathway may represent an important means for altering T cell phenotypes.Clinical Immunology 08/2009; 133(1):145-53. · 3.77 Impact Factor