Manual de evaluación educativa / M.A. Casanova.

Source: OAI


Reflexión sobre la evaluación educativa, en la que se cuestionan los modos tradicionales de evaluación centrados exclusivamente en los resultados o metas -como lo sería el examen- y que desplaza el interés de la evaluación hacia el proceso educativo en su conjunto.

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    • "La entrevista no tiene que ser necesariamente formal; se puede llevar a cabo mediante conversaciones informales en distintos momentos y espacios de la jornada escolar. Este formato tiene la ventaja de propiciar un clima mucho más distendido y abierto que puede generar en el entrevistado una mayor confianza hacia el entrevistador (Casanova, 1999). Se sugiere el empleo de la entrevista cuando se requiere obtener datos que algunos sujetos no facilitarían por escrito debido a su carácter confidencial, delicado, o porque suponen una fuerte implicación afectiva, profesional o de cualquier otro tipo. "
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    ABSTRACT: Since the end of last century, competency based education has reappeared worldwide with great strength. Mexican educational reforms carried out in last decade in the whole educational system have one common element: a competency based curriculum. As it is occurring in other countries, Mexico is experienced a state of effervescence for competency based education. Yet confusion and uncertainty seem the distinctive seal in all those reforms. While it may be true that de definition of competency is polysemic and complex, there is not an unified theory for implementing competency based curriculum. If we added up to such situation the difficulties posed by assessment of learning under this approach, we might say that conditions are set up for a state of ambiguity and bewilderment as it happening nowadays at schools. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the theoreical debate on assessment in competency based educaion and to and share some basic methodological tools that might help teacher improve their theoreical concepions and assessment pracices on competency based education.
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    • "These activities are framed within a global program of continuous evaluation and include exams and laboratory practice, where students will be clearly informed from the beginning of the academic year the percentage weight of exams, of laboratory practices, and how will each of these activities contribute to the final mark of the subject. There are many manuals that explain methods to build different evaluation tests and describe their advantages and disadvantages (Zabalza, 1991; Casanova, 1999; Rosales, 1981; Lafourcade, 1973; Bloom et al. 1975; Stecher & Davis, 1990; García-Ramos, 1989). However, apart from the type of test used, the percentages coming from each of the mentioned fields, which add up the final mark, must be clearly established at the beginning of the course, which will depend on the skills or competences we wish students to develop. "
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    ABSTRACT: Having used these activities within a global program of continuous evaluation during the past three years (Vilaplana et al., 2007; Vilaplana & Gomis, 2008), our overall assessment is positive. We have observed a number of advantageous results. For instance, students´ motivation increases as their duties are spread out during the duration of the subject; therefore they do not find themselves with accumulated workload prior to exams. This means that students can follow the subjects of Physics easier. Another advantage is the combined development of specific and generic competences. Each degree compiles the specific competences to be developed, as demanded by society. Their developments greatly depend on the active methodologies used in activities. In other words, the nature of these activities leads to an active student attitude. In brief, it is clear that it is possible to achieve a much more meaningful and integrated learning when continuous evaluation is used. Acknowledgment is also given to the design of activities based on active methodologies. Moreover, we have tested that development through one's own experience is much more helpful than learning through passive attendance. On the other hand, we have encountered some short backs when trying to reach our purposes. One of these is related to number of students that are enrolled in a subject. Large groups difficult the successful completion of these activities due to the excessive time needed. We have concluded that an adequate number of students would be around forty or fifty. Another challenging concern is the time needed by students to undertake each activity. Learning within the ECTS framework implies that we should take this aspect into account, and not overload students with excessive hours of work. Beside this, it is part of role of lecturers to change student habits of study. Therefore, institutions should make an effort in providing lecturers with adequate training, so that they can improve the required skills for their new role as facilitators and can gradually encourage their students to participate actively during lectures. Having mentioned the advantages and disadvantages we have reached to the conclusion that the use of continuous evaluation and active methodologies, as well as the change in lecturer role and the active participation of the students in the class, altogether make it possible to work in terms of competences. Continuous evaluation and active methodologies facilitate the generation of an adequate atmosphere for working in this way. To accomplish this, it is imperative that lecturers are trained for their new role as facilitators. These ingredients, when combined, will naturally drive students towards the accomplishment of
    New Achievements in Technology Education and Development, 03/2010; , ISBN: 978-953-307-066-7
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    ABSTRACT: RESUMO: Partindo da conceptualização dos “problemas afetivos derivados do contacto” estuda-se a sua influência na aprendizagem em Rugby, Andebol e Voleibol. Este conceito agrupa emoções ligadas ao mantimento da integridade física (“medo ao contacto físico”, “medo à pelota”, “medo à caída”,...), junto com outras ligadas a aspetos sociais (“vergonha”, “nojo”). O trabalho aborda três estudos no marco do paradigma qualitativo, mediante o método de análise de conteúdo e com o apoio de estratégias quantitativas dentro dos “Métodos Mixtos”. Os dous primeiros forom realizados no âmbito universitário e o terceiro no escolar. O primeiro desses trabalhos serviu para estabelecer a metodologia dentro da “análise de conteúdos de documentos persoais”; o segundo permitiu um estudo prospectivo dos dados, a descrição da realidade a estudar no âmbito universitário e o refinamento da metodologia, centrando-a no método de “análise de diários com entrevista sobre os diários” com apoio de ferramentas informáticas de análise qualitativo (CAQDAS); no terceiro replica-se o estudo anterior no âmbito escolar incorporando sociometria e questionários. Os principais achados são: confirma-se a presença dos problemas afetivos derivados do contacto no ensino dos deportes estudados; constata-se a influência negativa destas emoções nos processos de ensino-aprendizagem; descrevem-se quais são os tipos de contactos que geram máis problemas; e analisam-se os factores a ter em conta para o seu controle. ABSTRACT: Starting from the conceptualization of emotional problems related to contact, we study its influence in the learning of Rugby, Handball and Volleyball. This concept groups emotions related to the maintenance of physical integrity: fear of physical contact, fear of falling, fear of the ball,etc together with other emotions related to social aspects such as embarrassment or disgust. This thesis broaches three studies in the frame of qualitative research through the method of analysis of content assisted with quantitative strategies within the Mixed Methods. The two first were carried out at the university sphere and the third one at the school setting. The first of these studies was used for establishing a methodology within the “analysis of content in personal documents”.The second one was a prospective study which allowed the description of the reality in study at the university level and the refinement in methodology. So, the method focused on the “analysis of diaries with interviews about them” together with the support of computer tools of qualitative analysis (CAQDAS) . The third of these studies replies the former one at the school setting and it also incorporates sociometrics and questionnaires. The main finds are: the presence of emotional problems related to contact in the teaching of the studied sports is confirmed; the negative influence of these emotions in the teaching-learning process is validated; the types of contacts which generate more problems are described as well as the factors to take into account to control those problems. RESUMEN: Partiendo de la conceptualización de los “problemas afectivos derivados del contacto” se estudia su influencia en el aprendizaje de Rugby, Balonmano y Voleibol. Este concepto agrupa emociones relacionadas con el mantenimiento de la integridad física (“miedo al contacto físico”, “miedo a la caída”, “miedo al balón”,...), junto con otras, vinculadas a los aspectos sociales (“vergüenza”, “asco”). El trabajo aborda tres estudios en el marco del paradigma cualitativo, mediante el método de análisis de contenido y con el apoyo de estrategias cuantitativas, dentro de los “Métodos mixtos”. Los dos primeros fueron realizados en el ámbito universitario y el tercero en el escolar. El primero de estos trabajos sirvió para establecer la metodología dentro del “análisis de contenidos de documentos personales”. El segundo permitió un estudio prospectivo de los datos, la descripción de la realidad a estudiar en el ámbito universitario y el refinamiento de la metodología, que finalmente fue centrada en el método de “análisis de diarios con entrevista sobre los diários” con el apoyo de herramientas informáticas de análisis cualitativo (CAQDAS). En tercer trabajo se replicó el estudio anterior en el ámbito escolar incorporando además sociometría y cuestionarios. Las principales conclusiones a destacar son: se confirma la presencia de los problemas afetivos derivados del contacto en la enseñanza de los deportes analizados; se constata la influencia negativa de estas emociones en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje; se describen cuáles son los tipos de contacto más conflictivos y se analizan los factores a tener en cuenta para su control.
    11/2014, Degree: Doutoramento en Ciéncias da atividade física e do deporte, Supervisor: Dr. José Andrés Sánchez Molina, Dra. Inmaculada Canales Lacruz
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