Article

Parametri ematici come possibili indicatori di benessere in bovine da latte

01/2004;
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT RIASSUNTO
La stretta relazione tra andamento dei parametri ematici e fase fisiologica in molte specie
animali per i diversi indirizzi produttivi (vacche da latte, vitelli da ingrasso e suinetti) ha spinto
da anni la ricerca ad indagare su tale legame, reso ancora più complesso da fattori di carattere
fisiologico, alimentare e manageriale.
L’intento di questo lavoro è apportare un contributo a tale argomento, finalizzando l’interpretazione
di alcuni dei parametri ematici analizzati alla valutazione dello stato di benessere
delle lattifere. Sono stati effettuati quattro prelievi ematici stagionali (estate 2001, autunno
2001, inverno 2001/2002 e primavera 2002) su 54 bovine da latte di razza Frisona. Lo stato
fisiologico (asciutta, transizione, fresche, lattazione e tarda lattazione) ha influenzato le concentrazioni
di ALT (p<0.05), azoto ureico (p<0.001), glucosio (p<0.05), proteine totali (p<0.05),
creatinina (p<0.001), colesterolo (p<0.001), trigliceridi (p<0.001) e globuli bianchi (p<0.05).
I valori maggiormente alterati sono stati registrati per AST (64.2% dei campioni), colesterolo
(84.7%), trigliceridi (80.6%), NEFA (44.9%), albumine (69.4%), ematocrito (78.6%), ed alcune
componenti della formula leucocitaria. Ciò segnala una generale alterazione di importanti indicatori
metabolici, anche in assenza di cali produttivi evidenti. Tali informazioni possono fornire
nelle vacche da latte utili indicazioni per un monitoraggio mirato, identificando le fasi produttive
più critiche (transition cow e i primi 100 gg di lattazione) ed apportando di conseguenza
opportune strategie per migliorare le condizioni di vita degli animali in allevamento.

SUMMARY
For years, blood parameters have been used as a tool for evaluating animal welfare on
farms, appearing to be closely connected to physiological status in dairy cows, calves and
piglets. The aim of this work was to evaluate blood parameters in 54 Fresian dairy cows, highlighting
their welfare conditions. Samples were collected four times (summer 2001, autumn
2001, winter 2001/2002 and spring 2002). Results were discussed regarding the main physiological
phases (dry period, transition, fresh lactating, mid-lactating and late lactating periods).
These periods significantly influenced AST (p<0.05), urea (p<0.001), glucose (p<0.05), total
protein (p<0.05), creatinine (p<0.001), cholesterol (p<0.001), triglycerides (p<0.001) and white
blood cells (p<0.05) concentrations. AST (64.2% of samples), cholesterol (84.7%), triglycerides
(80.6%), NEFA (44.9%), albumin (69.4%) and packed cell volume (78.6%) were the most
altered blood parameters. In this context, many values were not included in the physiological
range, even if no drop in production was noticed. Our results could give primary indications
for the state of dairy cows welfare, indicating targeted parameters (AST, cholesterol, triglycerides,
NEFA, albumin, packed cell volume and neutrophil/lymphocytes ratio) and critical phases
(transition and early lactation periods) to simplify animal control and implement appropriate
corrective measures aimed at improving living conditions on farms.

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    ABSTRACT: For many years, the intensivists are searching for an easily measurable and available parameter which might reflect the intensity of stress and/or systemic inflammation in critically ill patients following shock, multiple trauma, major surgery or sepsis. Recently, some authors have described the onset of significant lymphocytopenia after polytrauma, major surgery, endotoxaemia and sepsis. We investigate whether serial examination of white blood cell counts may reflect and clarify the immune response to stressful events in critically ill patients. We have designed a prospective longitudinal observational study to investigate serial changes in circulating neutrophil and lymphocyte counts following major surgery, unscheduled surgery and sepsis. We have investigated the differential white blood cell counts and the clinical course in 90 oncological ICU patients. We compared three groups: group A consisting of 62 patients who underwent scheduled colorectal surgery, group B consisting of 18 patients who underwent unscheduled surgery for abdominal sepsis, group C consisting of 10 medical ICU patients who were treated for severe sepsis and septic shock. The severity of clinical course was expressed by means of SOFA score (group A 0.3-1-1.3 point, group B 2.2-2.9-2.6 point, group C 7.4-8.3-7.7 point) and APACHE II score (group A 3.7-7.6-8.1 point, group B 8.6-11.1-10.5 point, group C 16.3-15.2-14.3 point). Differential white blood cell counts were investigated on blood cell counter SYSMEX SF 3000 in 4 consecutive periods: 1 day one before surgery, 0 the day of surgery or ICU admittance, 1 day one after surgery (or the 1st ICU day), 2nd day following surgery (or the 2nd ICU day). The measured values of neutrophils and lymphocytes were expressed as relative counts (%) of the whole all white blood cell population. The physiologic response of circulating leukocytes to surgical stress in group A is characterized by the onset of marked neutrophilia (62.5% before surgery up to 84.4% after surgery) and significant lymphocytopenia (28.1% before surgery to 10.3% following surgery). We observed a slow decline in neutrophil counts and an increase in lymphocyte counts since the 1st postoperative day. The patients with abdominal infection (group B) had elevated counts of neutrophils already before surgery (83.2%) and low values of lymphocyte counts (9.5%). A further increase in neutrophil counts (89.9%) and marked lymphopenia (7%) were recorded during the post-surgical period in group B. Critically ill patients with severe sepsis or septic shock (group C) had significantly highest values of neutrophil relative counts (94%-93.1%-92.5%, p < 0.05 against group A) and marked lowest values of lymphocyte counts (3.8%-4%-3.7%, p < 0.05 against group A). The severity of clinical course (according SOFA and APACHE II score) correlated with the divergence of neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in the white blood picture (marked neutrophilia and lymphocytopenia). In the population of 90 ICU oncological patients, we observed rapid serial changes in white blood cell populations, as a response of the immune system to surgical stress, systemic inflammation or sepsis. Preliminary results show the correlation between the severity of clinical course and the grade of neutrophilia and lymphocytopenia. The ratio of neutrophil and lymphocyte counts (in absolute and/or relative % values) is an easily measurable parameter which may express the severity of affliction. We suggest the term: neutrophil-lymphocyte stress factor, as a ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte counts, which can be routinely used in clinical ICU practice in intervals of 6-12 and 24 hours. The prognostic value of neutrophil-lymphocyte stress factor should be evaluated in further studies. (Tab. 6, Fig. 5, Ref. 12.)
    Bratislavske lekarske listy 02/2001; 102(1):5-14. · 0.47 Impact Factor

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