Parametri ematici come possibili indicatori di benessere in bovine da latte

Source: OAI

La stretta relazione tra andamento dei parametri ematici e fase fisiologica in molte specie
animali per i diversi indirizzi produttivi (vacche da latte, vitelli da ingrasso e suinetti) ha spinto
da anni la ricerca ad indagare su tale legame, reso ancora più complesso da fattori di carattere
fisiologico, alimentare e manageriale.
L’intento di questo lavoro è apportare un contributo a tale argomento, finalizzando l’interpretazione
di alcuni dei parametri ematici analizzati alla valutazione dello stato di benessere
delle lattifere. Sono stati effettuati quattro prelievi ematici stagionali (estate 2001, autunno
2001, inverno 2001/2002 e primavera 2002) su 54 bovine da latte di razza Frisona. Lo stato
fisiologico (asciutta, transizione, fresche, lattazione e tarda lattazione) ha influenzato le concentrazioni
di ALT (p<0.05), azoto ureico (p<0.001), glucosio (p<0.05), proteine totali (p<0.05),
creatinina (p<0.001), colesterolo (p<0.001), trigliceridi (p<0.001) e globuli bianchi (p<0.05).
I valori maggiormente alterati sono stati registrati per AST (64.2% dei campioni), colesterolo
(84.7%), trigliceridi (80.6%), NEFA (44.9%), albumine (69.4%), ematocrito (78.6%), ed alcune
componenti della formula leucocitaria. Ciò segnala una generale alterazione di importanti indicatori
metabolici, anche in assenza di cali produttivi evidenti. Tali informazioni possono fornire
nelle vacche da latte utili indicazioni per un monitoraggio mirato, identificando le fasi produttive
più critiche (transition cow e i primi 100 gg di lattazione) ed apportando di conseguenza
opportune strategie per migliorare le condizioni di vita degli animali in allevamento.

For years, blood parameters have been used as a tool for evaluating animal welfare on
farms, appearing to be closely connected to physiological status in dairy cows, calves and
piglets. The aim of this work was to evaluate blood parameters in 54 Fresian dairy cows, highlighting
their welfare conditions. Samples were collected four times (summer 2001, autumn
2001, winter 2001/2002 and spring 2002). Results were discussed regarding the main physiological
phases (dry period, transition, fresh lactating, mid-lactating and late lactating periods).
These periods significantly influenced AST (p<0.05), urea (p<0.001), glucose (p<0.05), total
protein (p<0.05), creatinine (p<0.001), cholesterol (p<0.001), triglycerides (p<0.001) and white
blood cells (p<0.05) concentrations. AST (64.2% of samples), cholesterol (84.7%), triglycerides
(80.6%), NEFA (44.9%), albumin (69.4%) and packed cell volume (78.6%) were the most
altered blood parameters. In this context, many values were not included in the physiological
range, even if no drop in production was noticed. Our results could give primary indications
for the state of dairy cows welfare, indicating targeted parameters (AST, cholesterol, triglycerides,
NEFA, albumin, packed cell volume and neutrophil/lymphocytes ratio) and critical phases
(transition and early lactation periods) to simplify animal control and implement appropriate
corrective measures aimed at improving living conditions on farms.

Download full-text


Available from: Novella Benvenuti, Sep 27, 2015
31 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For many years, the intensivists are searching for an easily measurable and available parameter which might reflect the intensity of stress and/or systemic inflammation in critically ill patients following shock, multiple trauma, major surgery or sepsis. Recently, some authors have described the onset of significant lymphocytopenia after polytrauma, major surgery, endotoxaemia and sepsis. We investigate whether serial examination of white blood cell counts may reflect and clarify the immune response to stressful events in critically ill patients. We have designed a prospective longitudinal observational study to investigate serial changes in circulating neutrophil and lymphocyte counts following major surgery, unscheduled surgery and sepsis. We have investigated the differential white blood cell counts and the clinical course in 90 oncological ICU patients. We compared three groups: group A consisting of 62 patients who underwent scheduled colorectal surgery, group B consisting of 18 patients who underwent unscheduled surgery for abdominal sepsis, group C consisting of 10 medical ICU patients who were treated for severe sepsis and septic shock. The severity of clinical course was expressed by means of SOFA score (group A 0.3-1-1.3 point, group B 2.2-2.9-2.6 point, group C 7.4-8.3-7.7 point) and APACHE II score (group A 3.7-7.6-8.1 point, group B 8.6-11.1-10.5 point, group C 16.3-15.2-14.3 point). Differential white blood cell counts were investigated on blood cell counter SYSMEX SF 3000 in 4 consecutive periods: 1 day one before surgery, 0 the day of surgery or ICU admittance, 1 day one after surgery (or the 1st ICU day), 2nd day following surgery (or the 2nd ICU day). The measured values of neutrophils and lymphocytes were expressed as relative counts (%) of the whole all white blood cell population. The physiologic response of circulating leukocytes to surgical stress in group A is characterized by the onset of marked neutrophilia (62.5% before surgery up to 84.4% after surgery) and significant lymphocytopenia (28.1% before surgery to 10.3% following surgery). We observed a slow decline in neutrophil counts and an increase in lymphocyte counts since the 1st postoperative day. The patients with abdominal infection (group B) had elevated counts of neutrophils already before surgery (83.2%) and low values of lymphocyte counts (9.5%). A further increase in neutrophil counts (89.9%) and marked lymphopenia (7%) were recorded during the post-surgical period in group B. Critically ill patients with severe sepsis or septic shock (group C) had significantly highest values of neutrophil relative counts (94%-93.1%-92.5%, p < 0.05 against group A) and marked lowest values of lymphocyte counts (3.8%-4%-3.7%, p < 0.05 against group A). The severity of clinical course (according SOFA and APACHE II score) correlated with the divergence of neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in the white blood picture (marked neutrophilia and lymphocytopenia). In the population of 90 ICU oncological patients, we observed rapid serial changes in white blood cell populations, as a response of the immune system to surgical stress, systemic inflammation or sepsis. Preliminary results show the correlation between the severity of clinical course and the grade of neutrophilia and lymphocytopenia. The ratio of neutrophil and lymphocyte counts (in absolute and/or relative % values) is an easily measurable parameter which may express the severity of affliction. We suggest the term: neutrophil-lymphocyte stress factor, as a ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte counts, which can be routinely used in clinical ICU practice in intervals of 6-12 and 24 hours. The prognostic value of neutrophil-lymphocyte stress factor should be evaluated in further studies. (Tab. 6, Fig. 5, Ref. 12.)
    Bratislavske lekarske listy 02/2001; 102(1):5-14. · 0.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine whether there were differences in metabolic parameters and blood leukocyte profiles between cows in herds with high or low yearly mastitis incidence. In this study, 271 cows from 20 high yielding dairy herds were examined. According to the selection criteria, all herds had low somatic cell counts. Ten of the selected herds represented low mastitis treatment incidence (LMI) and ten herds had high mastitis treatment incidence (HMI). The farms were visited once and blood samples were taken from each cow that was in the interval from three weeks before to 15 weeks after parturition. The eosinophil count was significantly lower among cows from the HMI herds in the period from four weeks to 15 weeks after parturition. The plasma concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, insulin and urea did not differ between groups, but the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was significantly higher among HMI cows during the period three weeks after parturition. The concentration of the amino acid tryptophan in plasma was significantly lower among the HMI cows prior to parturition. Glutamine was significantly lower in cows from HMI herds during the first three weeks after parturition. Arginine was consistently lower in HMI cows, although the decrease was only significant during the period from four to fifteen weeks after parturition. The results suggest that there were differences in the metabolism and immune status between herds with high or low yearly mastitis treatment incidence indicating an increased metabolic stress in HMI cows.
    The Veterinary Journal 08/2004; 168(1):65-73. DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2003.09.015 · 1.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In dairy cows, overfeeding during the dry period leads to overcondition at calving and to depression of appetite after calving. As a consequence, at calving overconditioned high-producing dairy cows inevitably go into a more severe negative energy balance (NEB) postpartum than cows that have a normal appetite. During the period of NEB, the energy requirements of the cow are satisfied by lipolysis and proteolysis. Lipolysis results in an increased concentration of non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the blood. In the liver, these NEFA are predominantly esterified to triacylglycerols (TAG) that are secreted in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). In early lactation in cows with a severe NEB, the capacity of the liver to maintain the export of the TAG in the form of VLDL in balance with the hepatic TAG production is not always adequate. As a result, the excess amount of TAG accumulates in the liver, leading to fatty infiltration of the liver (hepatic lipidosis or fatty liver). The NEB and/or fatty liver postpartum are frequently associated with postparturient problems. In general, a severe NEB induces changes in biochemical, endocrinological, and metabolic pathways that are responsible for production, maintenance of health, and reproduction of the postparturient dairy cow. These changes include a decrease in blood glucose and insulin concentrations, and an increase in blood NEFA concentrations. High NEFA concentrations caused by intensive lipolysis are accompanied by impairment of the immune system, making the cows more vulnerable to infections. Metabolic diseases such as ketosis, milk fever, and displaced abomasum are related to overcondition at calving. The changes in biochemical, endocrinological, and metabolic pathways are associated with delay of the first visible signs of oestrus, an increase in the interval from calving to first ovulation, a decrease in conception rate, and a prolonged calving interval. It is possible that the increased blood NEFA concentration directly impairs ovarian function.
    The Veterinary quarterly 07/1999; 21(3):71-7. DOI:10.1080/01652176.1999.9694997 · 0.72 Impact Factor