Article

Parametri ematici come possibili indicatori di benessere in bovine da latte

01/2004;
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT RIASSUNTO
La stretta relazione tra andamento dei parametri ematici e fase fisiologica in molte specie
animali per i diversi indirizzi produttivi (vacche da latte, vitelli da ingrasso e suinetti) ha spinto
da anni la ricerca ad indagare su tale legame, reso ancora più complesso da fattori di carattere
fisiologico, alimentare e manageriale.
L’intento di questo lavoro è apportare un contributo a tale argomento, finalizzando l’interpretazione
di alcuni dei parametri ematici analizzati alla valutazione dello stato di benessere
delle lattifere. Sono stati effettuati quattro prelievi ematici stagionali (estate 2001, autunno
2001, inverno 2001/2002 e primavera 2002) su 54 bovine da latte di razza Frisona. Lo stato
fisiologico (asciutta, transizione, fresche, lattazione e tarda lattazione) ha influenzato le concentrazioni
di ALT (p<0.05), azoto ureico (p<0.001), glucosio (p<0.05), proteine totali (p<0.05),
creatinina (p<0.001), colesterolo (p<0.001), trigliceridi (p<0.001) e globuli bianchi (p<0.05).
I valori maggiormente alterati sono stati registrati per AST (64.2% dei campioni), colesterolo
(84.7%), trigliceridi (80.6%), NEFA (44.9%), albumine (69.4%), ematocrito (78.6%), ed alcune
componenti della formula leucocitaria. Ciò segnala una generale alterazione di importanti indicatori
metabolici, anche in assenza di cali produttivi evidenti. Tali informazioni possono fornire
nelle vacche da latte utili indicazioni per un monitoraggio mirato, identificando le fasi produttive
più critiche (transition cow e i primi 100 gg di lattazione) ed apportando di conseguenza
opportune strategie per migliorare le condizioni di vita degli animali in allevamento.

SUMMARY
For years, blood parameters have been used as a tool for evaluating animal welfare on
farms, appearing to be closely connected to physiological status in dairy cows, calves and
piglets. The aim of this work was to evaluate blood parameters in 54 Fresian dairy cows, highlighting
their welfare conditions. Samples were collected four times (summer 2001, autumn
2001, winter 2001/2002 and spring 2002). Results were discussed regarding the main physiological
phases (dry period, transition, fresh lactating, mid-lactating and late lactating periods).
These periods significantly influenced AST (p<0.05), urea (p<0.001), glucose (p<0.05), total
protein (p<0.05), creatinine (p<0.001), cholesterol (p<0.001), triglycerides (p<0.001) and white
blood cells (p<0.05) concentrations. AST (64.2% of samples), cholesterol (84.7%), triglycerides
(80.6%), NEFA (44.9%), albumin (69.4%) and packed cell volume (78.6%) were the most
altered blood parameters. In this context, many values were not included in the physiological
range, even if no drop in production was noticed. Our results could give primary indications
for the state of dairy cows welfare, indicating targeted parameters (AST, cholesterol, triglycerides,
NEFA, albumin, packed cell volume and neutrophil/lymphocytes ratio) and critical phases
(transition and early lactation periods) to simplify animal control and implement appropriate
corrective measures aimed at improving living conditions on farms.

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