A Comparison of TMR With Alternative Fault-Tolerant Design Techniques for FPGAs
ABSTRACT With growing interest in the use of SRAM-based FPGAs in space and other radiation environments, there is a greater need for efficient and effective fault-tolerant design techniques specific to FPGAs. Triple-modular redundancy (TMR) is a common fault mitigation technique for FPGAs and has been successfully demonstrated by several organizations. This technique, however, requires significant hardware resources. This paper evaluates three additional mitigation techniques and compares them to TMR. These include quadded logic, state machine encoding, and temporal redundancy, all well-known techniques in custom circuit technologies. Each of these techniques are compared to TMR in both area cost and fault tolerance. The results from this paper suggest that none of these techniques provides greater reliability and often require more resources than TMR.
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ABSTRACT: Adolf Beck (1863-1942) can be regarded as the co-founder of electroencephalography. His studies on the cerebral cortex of animals have facilitated the introduction of the electroencephalogram (EEG) as a main tool for studying the brain. The localization of senses on the cortex with evoked potentials and the description of the desynchronization of the electrical brain activity upon stimulation, are hallmarks of the research of Beck. He performed his groundbreaking studies under supervision of the famous Napoleon Cybulski at the Jagiellonian University in Cracow (Poland) between 1888 and 1895. In that last year Beck was appointed professor at the University of Lemberg (Lviv), where he founded the Department of Physiology and recruited scientists to the Lviv School of Physiology. Beck was the leading authority of the University of Lemberg in the most turbulent period of the town's history. Together with Cybulski he wrote the influential textbook 'Human physiology' in 1915.International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 11/2011; 85(1):3-6. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: SRAM-based FPGAs are very susceptible to radiation-induced Single-Event Upsets (SEUs) in space applications. The failure mechanism in FPGA's configuration memory differs from those in traditional memory device. As a result, there is a growing demand for methodologies which could quantitatively evaluate the impact of this effect. Fault injection appears to meet such requirement. In this paper, we propose a new methodology to analyze the soft errors in SRAM-based FPGAs. This method is based on in depth understanding of the device architecture and failure mechanisms induced by configuration upsets. The developed programs read in the placed and routed netlist, search for critical logic nodes and paths that may destroy the circuit topological structure, and then query a database storing the decoded relationship of the configurable resources and corresponding control bit to get the sensitive bits. Accelerator irradiation test and fault injection experiments were carried out to validate this approach.Journal of Semiconductors 05/2011; 32(5):055008.
Conference Proceeding: Exploring retrograde signaling via astrocytes as a mechanism for self repair[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent work has shown that astrocytes are capable of bidirectional communication with neurons which leads to modulation of synaptic activity. Moreover, indirect signaling pathways of retrograde messengers such as endocannabinoids lead to modulation of synaptic transmission probability. In this paper we hypothesize that this signaling underpins fault tolerance in the brain. In particular, faults manifest themselves in silent or near silent neurons, which is caused by low transmission probability synapses, and the enhancement of the transmission probability of a “faulty” synapse by indirect retrograde feedback is the repair mechanism. Furthermore, based on recent findings we present a model of self repair at the synaptic level, where retrograde signaling via astrocytes increases the probability of neurotransmitter release at damaged or low transmission probability synapses. Although our model is still at the embryo stage, results presented are encouraging and highlight a new research direction on brain-like self repair.Neural Networks (IJCNN), The 2011 International Joint Conference on; 09/2011