A Comparison of TMR With Alternative Fault-Tolerant Design Techniques for FPGAs
ABSTRACT With growing interest in the use of SRAM-based FPGAs in space and other radiation environments, there is a greater need for efficient and effective fault-tolerant design techniques specific to FPGAs. Triple-modular redundancy (TMR) is a common fault mitigation technique for FPGAs and has been successfully demonstrated by several organizations. This technique, however, requires significant hardware resources. This paper evaluates three additional mitigation techniques and compares them to TMR. These include quadded logic, state machine encoding, and temporal redundancy, all well-known techniques in custom circuit technologies. Each of these techniques are compared to TMR in both area cost and fault tolerance. The results from this paper suggest that none of these techniques provides greater reliability and often require more resources than TMR.
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ABSTRACT: FPGAs have become prevalent in critical applications in which transient faults can seriously affect the circuit's operation. We present a fault tolerance technique for transient and permanent faults in SRAM-based FPGAs. This technique combines duplication with comparison (DWC) and concurrent error detection (CEO) to provide a highly reliable circuit while maintaining hardware, pin, and power overheads far lower than with classic triple-modular-redundancy techniques.IEEE Design and Test of Computers 12/2004; 21(6):552- 562. · 1.62 Impact Factor