A Comparison of TMR With Alternative Fault-Tolerant Design Techniques for FPGAs
ABSTRACT With growing interest in the use of SRAM-based FPGAs in space and other radiation environments, there is a greater need for efficient and effective fault-tolerant design techniques specific to FPGAs. Triple-modular redundancy (TMR) is a common fault mitigation technique for FPGAs and has been successfully demonstrated by several organizations. This technique, however, requires significant hardware resources. This paper evaluates three additional mitigation techniques and compares them to TMR. These include quadded logic, state machine encoding, and temporal redundancy, all well-known techniques in custom circuit technologies. Each of these techniques are compared to TMR in both area cost and fault tolerance. The results from this paper suggest that none of these techniques provides greater reliability and often require more resources than TMR.
SourceAvailable from: Doran Kenneth Wilde
ACM Computing Surveys 01/2015; 47(2):1-34. DOI:10.1145/2671181 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) offer high capability in implementing of complex systems, and currently are an attractive solution for space system electronics. However, FPGAs are susceptible to radiation induced Single-Event Upsets (SEUs). To insure reliable operation of FPGA based systems in a harsh radiation environment, various SEU mitigation techniques have been provided. In this paper we propose a system based on dynamic partial reconfiguration capability of the modern devices to evaluate the SEU fault effect in FPGA. The proposed approach combines the fault injection controller with the host FPGA, and therefore the hardware complexity is minimized. All of the SEU injection and evaluation requirements are performed by a soft-core which realized inside the host FPGA. Experimental results on some standard benchmark circuits reveal that the proposed system is able to speed up the fault injection campaign 50 times in compared to conventional method.Journal of Electronics (China) 02/2014; 31(1):68-77. DOI:10.1007/s11767-014-3122-x