Article

Diagnostic epididymal and testicular sperm recovery and genetic aspects in azoospermic men

Centre for Reproductive Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg University, Sweden.
Human Reproduction (Impact Factor: 4.59). 02/1999; DOI: 10.1093/humrep/14.1.118
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT Various procedures for sperm recovery in azoospermic men have been described, from open testicular biopsy to simple needle aspiration from the epididymis and the testis. Fifty-one obstructive and 86 non-obstructive azoospermic men were treated to compare the recovery of spermatozoa obtained by percutaneous aspiration from the epididymis (PESA) and aspiration/extraction from the testis (TESA, TESE) with histopathology. If TESA failed, the work up proceeded with TESE. All patients were karyotyped. Spermatozoa were recovered by PESA or TESA in all obstructive men (51/51 patients). In 22 out of 86 patients with non-obstructive azoospermia, testicular spermatozoa could be successfully recovered by TESA. In five additional patients TESE was successful in recovering spermatozoa where TESA had failed. In 43 patients, neither TESA nor TESE was successful. Sixteen patients chose not to proceed with TESE. Seven out of 86 patients had an abnormal karyotype in the non-obstructive group (8%), none in the obstructive group. In the non-obstructive patient group testicular histopathology showed hypospermatogenesis, incomplete maturation arrest and germ cell aplasia with focal spermatogenesis in cases where spermatozoa were recovered and complete germ cell aplasia, complete maturation arrest and fibrosis in cases where no spermatozoa were found. Spermatozoa were recovered by PESA or TESA from all patients with obstructive azoospermia and from ~40% of patients with non-obstructive azoospermia by TESA or TESE. Retrieval of viable spermatozoa in the infertility work-up was highly predictable for sperm recovery in subsequent ICSI cycles. TESA performed under local anaesthesia seems almost as effective as more invasive procedures in recovering testicular spermatozoa, both in obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermic men.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
65 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The introduction of the technique of intracytoplasmic sperm injection to achieve fertilization, especially using surgically retrieved testicular or epididymal sperm from men with obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia, has revolutionized the field of assisted reproduction. The techniques for the retrieval of spermatozoa vary from relatively simple percutaneous sperm aspiration to open excision (testicular biopsy) and the more invasive Micro-TESE. The probability of retrieving spermatozoa can be as high as 100% in men with obstructive azoospermia (congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens, status post-vasectomy). However, in nonobstructive azoospermia, successful sperm retrieval has been reported in 10-100% of cases by various investigators. The surgical retrieval and cryopreservation of sperm, especially in men with non-obstructive azoospermia, to some extent ensures the availability of sperm at the time of intracytoplasmic sperm injection. In addition, this strategy can avoid unnecessary ovarian stimulation in those patients intending to undergo in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection with freshly retrieved testicular sperm when an absolute absence of sperm in the testis is identified. Several different methods for the cryopreservation of testicular and epididymal sperm are available. The choice of the container or carrier may be an important consideration and should take into account the number or concentration of the sperm in the final preparation. When the number of sperm in a testicular biopsy sample is extremely low (e.g., 1-20 total sperm available), the use of an evacuated zona pellucida to store the cryopreserved sperm has been shown to be an effective approach.
    Clinics 12/2012; 68:131-140. · 1.42 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs most often to young men. Following SCI, most men are infertile due to a combination of erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities. Erectile dysfunction may be treated by the same therapies that are used in the general population. Similarly, the same treatments that are effective to assist conception in couples with non-SCI male factor patients are effective in assisting conception in SCI male-factor patients. The most apparent differences in male-factor symptoms between SCI and non-SCI patients are the high occurrences of anejaculation and atypical semen profiles in men with SCI. Methods available to assist ejaculation in men with SCI include penile vibratory stimulation and EEJ. Use of surgical sperm retrieval as the first line of treatment for anejaculation in men with SCI is controversial. Most men with SCI have a unique semen profile characterized by normal sperm concentration, but abnormally low sperm motility. Toxic substances in the semen contribute to this problem. Despite impaired sperm parameters, pregnancy outcomes using sperm from men with SCI are similar to pregnancy outcomes using sperm from non-SCI men. Future studies should focus on improving natural ejaculation and improving semen quality in these men.
    Scientifica. 01/2012; 2012:578257.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
41 Downloads
Available from
May 15, 2014

Similar Publications