REporting recommendations for tumour MARKer prognostic studies (REMARK)
ABSTRACT Despite years of research and hundreds of reports on tumor markers in oncology, the number of markers that have emerged as clinically useful is pitifully small. Often, initially reported studies of a marker show great promise, but subsequent studies on the same or related markers yield inconsistent conclusions or stand in direct contradiction to the promising results. It is imperative that we attempt to understand the reasons that multiple studies of the same marker lead to differing conclusions. A variety of methodologic problems have been cited to explain these discrepancies. Unfortunately, many tumor marker studies have not been reported in a rigorous fashion, and published articles often lack sufficient information to allow adequate assessment of the quality of the study or the generalizability of study results. The development of guidelines for the reporting of tumor marker studies was a major recommendation of the National Cancer Institute–European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (NCI-EORTC) First International Meeting on Cancer Diagnostics in 2000. As for the successful CONSORT initiative for randomized trials and for the STARD statement for diagnostic studies, we suggest guidelines to provide relevant information about the study design, preplanned hypotheses, patient and specimen characteristics, assay methods, and statistical analysis methods. In addition, the guidelines suggest helpful presentations of data and important elements to include in discussions. The goal of these guidelines is to encourage transparent and complete reporting so that the relevant information will be available to others to help them to judge the usefulness of the data and understand the context in which the conclusions apply.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Lisa M Mcshane, May 30, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Patients with clinically and pathologically similar breast tumors often have very different outcomes and treatment responses. Current prognostic markers allocate the majority of breast cancer patients to the high-risk group, yielding high sensitivities in expense of specificities below 20%, leading to considerable overtreatment, especially in lymph node-negative patients. Seventy percent would be cured by surgery and radiotherapy alone in this group. Thus, precise and early indicators of metastasis are highly desirable to reduce overtreatment. Previous prognostic RNA-profiling studies have only focused on the protein-coding part of the genome, however the human genome contains thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and this unexplored field possesses large potential for identification of novel prognostic markers. We evaluated lncRNA microarray data from 164 primary breast tumors from adjuvant naïve patients with a mean follow-up of 18 years. Eighty two patients who developed detectable distant metastasis were compared to 82 patients where no metastases were diagnosed. For validation, we determined the prognostic value of the lncRNA profiles by comparing the ability of the profiles to predict metastasis in two additional, previously-published, cohorts. We showed that lncRNA profiles could distinguish metastatic patients from non-metastatic patients with sensitivities above 90% and specificities of 64-65%. Furthermore; classifications were independent of traditional prognostic markers and time to metastasis. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the prognostic potential of lncRNA profiles. Our study suggest that lncRNA profiles provide additional prognostic information and may contribute to the identification of early breast cancer patients eligible for adjuvant therapy, as well as early breast cancer patients that could avoid unnecessary systemic adjuvant therapy. This study emphasizes the potential role of lncRNAs in breast cancer prognosis.Breast cancer research: BCR 04/2015; 17(1):55. DOI:10.1186/s13058-015-0557-4 · 5.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, immune therapeutic strategies against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) based on tissue-derived biomarkers, for example PD1/PD-L1 (CD274), have evolved as novel and promising treatment options. However, the crosstalk between tumor and immune cells is poorly understood. Glycodelin (gene name PAEP), initially described in the context of pregnancy and trophoblastic implantation, is a secreted immunosuppressive glycoprotein with an as-of-yet largely unknown function in lung cancer. In this study, we characterized the expression and role of glycodelin in NSCLC through mRNA and protein expression analyses, functional knockdown experiments and correlations with clinicopathological parameters. Glycodelin mRNA expression was significantly elevated in tumors (n=336) compared with matched normal tissue (p<0.0001). Overall survival was significantly reduced in NSCLC with high glycodelin mRNA levels in women but not in men. Glycodelin was detected in the sera of patients, and the levels correlated with recurrence and metastatic disease. Knockdown of glycodelin with siRNAs in NSCLC cell lines resulted in significant up-regulation of immune system modulatory factors such as PDL1, CXCL5, CXCL16, MICA/B, and CD83 as well as proliferation stimulators EDN1 and HBEGF. Furthermore, decreased migration of tumor cells was observed. Altogether, the comprehensive characterization of glycodelin in NSCLC provides strong support for its use as a biomarker with immune modulatory function. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.Clinical Cancer Research 04/2015; DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-2464 · 8.19 Impact Factor
Dataset: BMC Cancer